Abarbanel on Pesach
Symbolic Meanings of the Mitzvot of Pesach
The root of the symbolic meaning of the Pesach mitzvot, and indeed of all the mitzvot in the Torah, lies in the fact that it is the duty of all
Unfortunately, this maturation is paralleled by the emergence of our physical and material desires. The prohibition against eating leavened foods (chametz) symbolizes our requirement to distance ourselves from these material temptations. For this reason when we bring a sacrificial offering to
The Mishna tells us that we are to search for leavened food on the fourteenth of Nissan by the light of a candle, which represents the soul of Mankind, as the verse in Proverbs (20, 27) states, “A man’s soul is the candle of Gd.” It is our duty to use this candle to search out and eliminate this leavening which symbolizes our negative actions and motivations. However, the flame cannot be so strong as to injure us or burn our homes, nor too weak which would prevent us from finding the leavening in the first place. Our job is to control our relationship with the physical world, not to withdraw from or destroy it. At the same time we must be able to recognize our failings and correct them. The mitzvah is to refrain from eating leavening for the entire seven days of the holiday, symbolic of our requirement to control our physical existence for our entire lifespan of seven decades. It is no coincidence that the number seven appears in regard to a wide variety of mitzvot: seven days of wedding celebration, seven days of ritual impurity, seven days of mourning, the seven-year agricultural cycle, and others as well.
On the first and last days of Pesach, melacha, or creative activity, is prohibited. The first day represents the beginning of one’s life, before he is capable of creative interaction with the world, and the last day represents the last decade of one’s life, when one tends to withdraw from the material world and focus on fulfilling one’s spiritual goals. However, the middle decades, like the middle days of the holidays, connect us actively to the material world, and refraining from leavening reminds us to take care to manage our relationship with the physical world properly.
The matzah that we eat must be completely pure and free of any trace of leavening. Furthermore, we must guard the flour from any contact with moisture which might result in leavening from the time that the wheat is ground. This symbolizes that Man must protect his spiritual essence from the time that he begins to surround himself with the ‘daily grind’ of worldly affairs and the quest for his daily sustenance. We are also commanded to eat the matzah with bitter herbs in order to symbolize that for the sake of our spiritual essence we may have to endure a measure of bitterness and pain in our physical existence.
The Pesach sacrifice also represents the triumph of Man’s spiritual essence over the physical, as eating it at night, which symbolizes death, alludes to the freeing of the soul from the body. Eating it with a group alludes to the groups of friends and relatives who come to mourn the deceased. Finally, it can only be eaten roasted, since the aroma of roasted meat is swiftly dispersed, which alludes to the transient nature of physical existence.
What is clearly apparent is that the holiday of Pesach hints at Man’s creation, his lifespan, the conquest of his evil inclination, the pain associated with his physical existence and the eventual fulfillment of his goal of spiritual connection to
After Pesach we are commanded to count seven weeks, culminating in the giving of the Torah at the holiday of Shavout. This is another reference to the seven decades of Man’s life, all of which should be directed to attaining the spiritual perfection which the nation experienced at the giving of the Torah at Sinai. It was fitting that