For the week ending 9 March 2024 / 29 Adar Alef 5784

The Seudas Shlishis - Rosh Chodesh Quandary

by Rabbi Yehuda Spitz
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We all know the Gemara’s dictum “Mishenichnas Adar Marbin B’Simcha – when the month of Adar arrives, our joy increases.”[1] Although in a leap year such as ours there is some debate if this maxim also applies to Adar Rishon,[2] nonetheless, this year, with Rosh Chodesh Adar Sheini falling out on Motza’ei Shabbos, aside from the inherent Simcha it heralds in, it will also generate some confusion. Truthfully, the issue under discussion is not specific to Adar per se, but rather one that occurs at least semi-annually - in fact, any time that Rosh Chodesh falls out on Motza’ei Shabbos.

As is well known, optimally, one should have a bread-based Seudah for Seudas Shlishis (‘Shaleshudis’ in the vernacular).[3] As generally speaking, many people’s Seudas Shlishis extends throughout the Bein Hashmashos (twilight) period until the time for Maariv of Motza’ei Shabbos at Tzeis Hakochavim, by the time one is ready to bentch, he may have unwittingly walked into a full-fledged halachic debate – and quite interestingly, one with no clear consensus as to the proper course of action.

Is It Shabbos or Rosh Chodesh?

The question under discussion is what does our ‘Shaleshudis’ eater add into his Birkas Hamazon? We know that on Shabbos one must add in ‘Retzei,’ whereas on Rosh Chodesh ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ is inserted.[4] Moreover, the Shulchan Aruch rules following the opinions of most Rishonim, that if on these days one’s seudah extends into the night, ‘Retzei,’ and / or ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ are still recited in bentching, even though Shabbos and / or Rosh Chodesh already concluded, “d’azlinan basar haschalas haseudah – as we follow the commencement of the seudah.”[5]

However, in our quite common scenario, one started his seudah when it was Shabbos, yet concluded it on Rosh Chodesh. That would mean that his seudah bridged two different obligations that halachically speaking did not actually overlap. When it was Shabbos, it was not Rosh Chodesh. And, when it was Rosh Chodesh, it was not Shabbos.[6] Consequently, which of these additions should be inserted into his bentching? Or perhaps both? Neither?

As mentioned previously, there is no clear consensus what to do in this case, but rather we find that the Gedolei Ha’Achronim debate this very issue. Following are the various positions:

# 1- Magen Avraham and Mishnah Berurah – OnlyYaaleh V’Yavo

The Magen Avraham discusses various considerations, including that reciting both ‘Retzei’ and ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ in one’s bentching would be considered ‘Tarti D’Sasri’ – contradictory – as while he was having his Seudas Shlishis, it was never actually both Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh. The Magen Avraham concludes citing the Shlah, that in a case such as this, whichever addition is considered a ‘tosefes,’ an extra, is not recited.[7] Accordingly, at the time of bentching, Shabbos has already concluded and it is now fully Rosh Chodesh. Therefore, at that time ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ is considered current, whereas ‘Retzei’ deemed the ‘tosefes.’

Hence, following this shittah, unless one ended the bread portion of his ‘Shaleshudis’ while it was still Shabbos, only ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ would be recited, as the seudah continued into Rosh Chodesh. The Mishnah Berurah cites this as the Magen Avraham’s opinion[8] and seemingly rules this way as well.[9] Other poskim who rule similarly include the Eimek Bracha, Derech Hachaim, Chayei Adam, and Elyah Rabba.[10]

# 2- Sefardic Psak, Bach, and Aruch Hashulchan – Rak Retzei

The Ben Ish Chai and Shulchan Melachim understand the Shulchan Aruch’s ruling of adding ‘Retzei’ and / or ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ when starting one’s seudah on Shabbos or Rosh Chodesh even when it extends into the following night, to be a ruling in all circumstances.[11] Meaning, we glean that even in a case such as ours, when bridging two different obligations, the ikar still remains the start of the seudah. Hence, in this case, they maintain that only ‘Retzei’ would be recited. This is the commonly held Sefardic psak,[12] as well as the Bach, Yosef Ometz, andAruch Hashulchan’s conclusions,that practically speaking, even in our case, “d’basar haschalas haseudah azlinan, we follow the commencement of the seudah.”[13]

# 3 – The Taz’s Take – Two are Better than One

The Taz, on the other hand, after citing both of the previous opinions, argues that this case is not a true ‘Tarti D’Sasri.’ He explains that over the course of the Seudas Shlishis one started to eat bread when it was still Shabbos and was continuing to eat when it was now Rosh Chodesh. Hence, he asserts, our ‘Shaleshudiser’ is obligated to recite both additions – as he ate both on Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh, even though they are technically considered consecutive days. Accordingly, in his Birkas Hamazon, he must recite both ‘Retzei’ and ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo.’ Both the Shulchan Aruch Harav and the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch favor this psak.[14]

# 4 – Kaf Hachaim – No Additions

The Kaf Hachaim takes an alternate approach. He explains that as we are discussing Seudas Shlishis, this may prove an exception to the rule. Generally speaking, as one is mandated in washing and eating bread-based Seudos on Shabbos, one is therefore obligated to repeat the whole bentching upon omitting ‘Retzei.’[15] Yet, this may not hold true regarding Seudas Shlishis. As there is a machlokes Rishonim whether it is necessary to have a bread-based meal for Seudas Shlishis, the Tur concludes tzarich iyun whether one must repeat Birkas Hamazon upon forgetting Retzei. Practically, the Shulchan Aruch rules that if one completed bentching of Seudas Shlishis without reciting ‘Retzei,’ he should not repeat bentching, as lemaaseh, Seudas Shlishis shares the halachic status of Rosh Chodesh, when it is preferential to wash, but not an outright obligation.[16]

Hence, asserts the Kaf Hachaim, as there is no true obligation to for a bread seudah at Seudas Shlishis, it cannot be mandated for us to recite the additions when there are conflicting circumstances, and especially when there is a machlokes what the proper course of action should be. Hence, he concludes, echoing the Talmudic dictum, ‘Shev v’al taaseh adif – it is preferable not to take action,’ but rather omit any addition.[17]

What to Do?

So, with so many differing, yet, viable options, which should we follow? As noted, there are Rabbinic opinions advocating for each side of this debate.[18] For example, the contemporary sefer V’Zos Habracha asserts that Chassidim generally follow the Taz on this and recite both ‘Retzei’ and ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ in this instance,[19] whereas Bnei Lita (those of Lithuanian origin) would usually follow the Magen Avraham and Mishnah Berurah here and only recite ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo.’[20] And as discussed previously, most Sefardim follow the Ben Ish Chai and only insert ‘Retzei.’[21]

Yet, the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch adds a fifth option – not to get involved in this complicated halachic predicament and ensuing debate.

# 5 – Avoidance is the Best Policy

The Kitzur Shulchan Aruch maintains that at this specific ‘Shaleshudis,’ it would be preferable not to eat bread when it is night. In this way, one would avoid the whole sheilah to begin with.[22] As stated previously, everyone agrees practically that when commencing one’s meal when it is Shabbos, he should still recite ‘Retzei’ when concluding it after nightfall. So, by making sure to eat a k’zayis of bread before Shkiya, and then abstaining from consuming more bread afterwards, all would agree that when bentching, all he would recite is ‘Retzei’ – as he did not eat actually bread when it is Rosh Chodesh at all.

Hence, it turns out that the ideal resolution to our complex quandary may very well be not to get entangled in it at all. Not a Daas Yachid, this optimal solution is given as well by Rav Yechiel Michel Tukachinsky in his essential Luach Eretz Yisrael,[23] and is cited as the preferred custom of several luminaries of the 1800s, including the Chasam Sofer, Divrei Chaim, Harei Besamim,andBirkas Habayis,[24] and by many contemporary Rabbanim as well, including Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, Rav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv, the Steipler Gaon, the Klausenberger Rebbe, Rav Chaim Kanievsky, Rav Dovid Feinstein, Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, Rav Moshe Sternbuch, Rav Asher Weiss, and Rav Yaakov Hillel.[25]

This why we find that anytime Shabbos concludes into Rosh Chodesh,[26] many have a minhag to start their Seudas Shlishis somewhat earlier and limit their challah intake, making sure to finish it before nightfall,[27] all to ensure that they do not unwittingly enter into a complex, complicated halachic quandary, with no clear-cut consensus or conclusion.

Yes, Mishenichnas Adar Marbin B’Simcha, but sometimes that simcha is reserved for resolving (or perhaps avoiding) halachic doubt.[28] May this year’s Adar herald in Besoros Tovos, Refuah Sheleimah and Shalom for all of Klal Yisroel.

For any questions, comments or for the full Mareh Mekomos / sources, please email the author: yspitz@ohr.edu.

Rabbi Yehuda Spitz, author of M’Shulchan Yehuda on Inyanei Halacha, serves as the Sho’el U’Meishiv and Rosh Chabura of the Ohr Lagolah Halacha Kollel at Yeshivas Ohr Somayach in Yerushalayim, and also pens a contemporary halacha column titled ‘Insights Into Halacha.’

Rabbi Spitz’s recent English halacha sefer, “Insights Into Halacha - Food: A Halachic Analysis,” (Mosaica/Feldheim) contains more than 500 pages and features over 30 comprehensive chapters, discussing a myriad of halachic issues relating to food. It is now available online and in bookstores everywhere.

[1]Taanis (29a).

[2]Although the Mishnah (Megillah 6b) declares “Ain bein Adar Rishon l’Adar Sheini ela Mikra Megillah bilvad,” the Gemara concludes that all Purim-related observances (including the Arbah Parshiyos) are actually celebrated in Adar Sheini, to ensure that the Geulah (Redemption) from Haman (Purim) and the Geulah from Egypt (on Pesach) should be observed in consecutive months. However, there is some debate whether ‘Marbin B’Simcha’ applies to Adar Rishon. Although the Yaavetz (Shu”t Sheilas Yaavetz vol. 2:88) and Teshuva Mei’ahava (Shu”t vol. 2:301) held that it only applies to Adar Sheini, nonetheless, in a teshuva (Shu”t Chasam Sofer, Choshen Mishpat 20), we find that the Chasam Sofer dated it ‘Alef D’Rosh Chodesh Adar Rishon Shemarbin Bo B’Simcha.’ There are those who infer that this is also the Gr”a’s opinion. See the Gr”a’s Peirush on Megillas Esther (Ch. 9:22) that the ‘simcha’ is inherently dependent on the month of Adar itself, implying whichever month is deemed ‘Adar.’ On a more contemporary note, see Shu”t Shevet Halevi (vol. 10:105, 3), Shu”t Az Nidberu (vol. 9:49), Shu”t Rivevos Efraim (vol. 3:464, 3), Halichos Shlomo (Moadim vol. 2, Purim Ch. 18, footnote 35), Chashukei Chemed (Purim 6), and Moadei HaGra”ch (vol. 1:682, pg. 315).

[3]See Tur and Shulchan Aruch and main commentaries to Orach Chaim (291:5).

[4]See Tur and Shulchan Aruch and main commentaries to Orach Chaim (188:5), based on Gemara Brachos (48b).

[5]Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 188:10), following the Orchos Chaim citing Tosafos (although there is some debate as to where this source is located), as well as the Maharil (Shu”t 56), Hagahos Maimoniyos (Megillah Ch. 2:1), and Rashal (Biur on the Tur, Orach Chaim 695:3), and not like the Rosh (Shu”t Klal 22:6) who maintains that one does not recite additions in Birkas Hamazon after the zman if the seudah extends past it. Although there is some discussion as to whether the Shulchan Aruch meant this Klal across the board or not, as he cites two opinions without a clear psak in Orach Chaim 271:6, regarding eating on Erev Shabbos and concluding one’s seudah when it was already Shabbos, nonetheless, regarding our case his ruling is deemed conclusive. [See Magen Avraham (271:14-15) and Taz (Orach Chaim 188:7) for differing approaches to understanding the Shulchan Aruch’s position.] Of course, if one davened Maariv before bentching, he would then lose the ability to recite ‘Retzei’ in our case, as by doing so, he technically personally ‘took on’ the new day. See Magen Avraham (ad loc. 17), Ba’er Heitiv (ad loc. 7), and Mishnah Berurah (ad loc. 32).

[6]It is important to note that this sheilah is not referring to when Shabbos is Rosh Chodesh, as in that case since there is a Tosefes Shabbos, ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ is recited along with ‘Retzei’ when one extends the day and bentches on Motza’ei Shabbos. Moreover, regarding Rosh Chodesh as well, unless there is a potential contradiction (as in the our main topic of discussion here) practically speaking, we follow the beginning of the seudah, which in our case would be both Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh. See Shulchan Aruch (ibid.), Magen Avraham (419:1), and Mishnah Berurah (424:1).

[7]Magen Avraham (188:18) and Shlah (pg. 82, Shaar HaOsiyos, Kedusha, Hagahah). As an aside, the Magen Avraham also cites the minority opinion of the Olas Tamid (ad loc. 5) who maintains that this discussion would depend on Tosefes Shabbos and therefore only if one’s seudah extends up until and hour and a quarter past shkiya (roughly Zman Rabbeinu Tam) would one still be able to recite ‘Retzei.’ After that time, one would only recite ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo.’ The Magen Avraham strongly argues, stating that the din of Tosefes Shabbos is exclusive to Erev Shabbos, and not relevant to this discussion. See also Pri Megadim (Eishel Avraham ad loc. 18). A somewhat similar view to the Olas Tamid, but from an entirely different perspective and rationale is that of the Halachos Ketanos (Shu”t vol. 2:46; cited by the Ba’er Heitiv ad loc. end 8) who asserts that one may only recite ‘Retzei’ on Motza’ei Shabbos as long as he did not yet digest the food he ate while still Shabbos [which is estimated practically at around 72 minutes as well – see Mishnah Berurah (184:20)]. However, as Rav Asher Weiss (Zemiros L’Shabbos Minchas Asher, Seudah Shlishis end 7) points out, the Mishnah Berurah cites differing opinions what to do in this case, but leaves out any mention of this one, implying that this qualification is not accepted practically, likely as this din is deemed dependent on actual seudah and not digestion.

[8]Although the Chayei Adam (118:4), Mishnah Berurah (ad loc. 33), and other poskim identify this as the Magen Avraham’s opinion, on the other hand, the Machatzis Hashekel (ad loc. 18 s.v u’lchein) understood this to actually be the Magen Avraham’s elucidation of the Shlah’s opinion, whereas the Magen Avraham himself intended to rule akin to the Shulchan Aruch, that we always follow the beginning of the seudah. According to his understanding, in this case, as Seudas Shlishis commenced while it was still Shabbos, the Magen Avraham would rule that only ‘Retzei’ would be recited, and not as he is commonly quoted, mandated only ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo.’

[9]The Mishnah Berurah (ibid.) first cites this shittah but then concludes with the Taz’s shittah as a ‘Yeish Omrim,’ without actually stating one decisive psak. Based on this, and how he is cited by later authorities, implies he deemed the Magen Avraham’s psak as the ikar one.

[10]Eimek Bracha (Dinei Birkas Hamazon, 48, Hagahah; cited by the Taz), Derech Hachaim (117:1), Chayei Adam (ibid.), and Elyah Rabba (Orach Chaim 188:20 s.v. gam; and Elyah Zuta ad loc. 18; following the Shlah).

[11]Ben Ish Chai (Year 1 Chukas 22) and Shulchan Melachim (188:10). This also seems to be the Knesses Hagedolah’s (Shiyurei Knesses Hagedolah ad loc. Hagahos on Beis Yosef, 18) opinion as well. The Ben Ish Chai adds that when reciting the addition when it technically is no longer the zman, one should omit the word “hazeh,” as it is technically no longer accurate. In this he is paskening like the Halachos Ketanos (Shu”t vol. 2:47), who first raised this differentiation.

[12]See Shu”t Yechaveh Daas (vol. 3:55; footnote at the end of teshuvah), Rav Mordechai Eliyahu’s Darchei Halacha glosses to the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (44:21), Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim 188:19), and Rav Yaakov Hillel’s Ahavat Shalom Luach.

[13]Bach (ad loc. end 12; also cited by the Taz ad loc. 7), Yosef Ometz (Minhagei Frankfurt 679), and Aruch Hashulchan (Orach Chaim 188:23).

[14]Taz (ad loc. 7), Shulchan Aruch Harav (ad loc. 17), and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (44:17), as well as the Magen Giborim (Elef Hamagen ad loc. 19), and Bigdei Yesha (ad loc. 19; both cited in Shaar Hatziyun ad loc. 26).

[15]This was discussed in a previous article titled ‘Facts and Formulae for the Forgetful,’ as well as the postscript to another titled ‘More Common Kiddush Questions: Kiddush B’Makom Seudah.’

[16]Tur and Shulchan Aruch (ad loc. 8). Although the Tur himself, as well as the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 291:4 and 5), conclude that one should optimally wash for Seudas Shlishis, due to the three times the Torah states ‘Hayom’ in the Parashas HaMann.

[17]Kaf Hachaim (ad loc. 44); Gemara Eruvin (100a).

[18]As Rav Asher Weiss (Zemiros L’Shabbos Minchas Asher, Seudah Shlishis 7 s.v. sof davar) puts it “sugya zu murkeves v’ain bah hachra’ah berurah… u’lechorah yeish lomar bazeh d’avid k’mar avid u’d’avid k’mar avid, v’nahara nahara u’pashtei…”

[19]Indeed we find that many Chassidic authorities ruled that the ikar halacha in this case follows the Taz, and recite both ‘Retzei’ and ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo,’ including the Shulchan Aruch Harav (ibid.), Lekutei Mahariach (vol. 1, pg. 172b s.v. v’hinei; Seder Birkas Hamazon; who adds that one should specifically eat a k’zayis pas after nightfall to obligate himself in both insertions, citing precedent from sefer Derech Seudah of the Maharam Poppers (printed 1678; pg. 80a s.v. seudah; writing “harotzeh latzaeis yedei Shamayim v’chol ha’dei’os” to specifically do so) referring to this as ‘Minhag Ha’olam’), and Shulchan HaTahor (188:16; who adds that this is only while there is still a din of Kedushas Shabbos – which he puts at an hour and a quarter into the night – [roughly Zman Rabbeinu Tam – similar to the Olas Tamid discussed in a previous footnote that the Magen Avraham objected to]; however, after that point, if one’s seudah continues, he asserts that only ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ would be recited), as well as the Belz Dvar Yom B’Yomo Luach (5784; pg. 383). The Debreciner Rav (Shu”t Ba’er Moshe, vol. 1, 5:6) advocates for this minhag as well, and cites many Tzaddikim whom he personally viewed over the years reciting both ‘Retzei’ and ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ in this instance. On the other hand, other noted Chassidic Rabbanim, including Rav Yosef Shaul Nathanson (Shu”t Shoel U’Meishiv, Mahadura Telita’ei, vol. 1:372; adding ‘especially during Sefirah’), the Minchas Elazar of Munkacsz (Darchei Chaim V’Shalom 307; adding ‘even when the seudah continued long into the night’) and the Butchatcher Rav (Eishel Avraham, Orach Chaim 188:10, end s.v. vayeitzei Shabbos), all maintained that in such an eventuality, the ikar is to only recite ‘Retzei.’ The Butchatcher adds that as an ‘eitza tova,’ in his opinion, it would be preferable to think ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ in one’s mind in this instance, without actually saying it, and this way fulfill all opinions. [He also adds in the next paragraph that if one would follow the Taz and recite both ‘Retzei’ and ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo,’ it is not considered a true ‘Tarti D’Sasri,’ as ‘issura leika bazeh’ and there is also no potential issue of ‘Lo Sisgodedu.’]

[20]V’Zos Habracha (Ch. 15, pg. 145:5). See also Piskei Teshuvos (vol. 2, 188:21) and Shaarei Habracha (Ch. 6:48) for similar assessments. Yet, we find that Rav Moshe Feinstein is quoted (Sefer Dinei Birchos Hanehenin; Hoffner, 124:7) as preferring the Taz’s shittah, that in this instance both ‘Retzei’ and ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ should be recited. On the other hand, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichos Shlomo, Moadim vol. 2, Rosh Chodesh, Ch. 1:21, footnote 82; V’Sein Bracha, vol. 2, pg. 323; and Maadanei Shlomo on Dalet Chelkei Shulchan Aruch, pg. 49), as well as Rav Moshe Sternbuch (Shu”t Teshuvos V’Hanhagos vol. 2:119; also citing Rav Yosef Tzvi Dushinsky, Raavad of the Badatz Eidah Chareidis), held that in such an eventuality, the ikar follows the Aruch Hashulchan, “d’azlinan basar techillas haseudah,” and only ‘Retzei’ should be recited. Rav Sternbuch explains that as at that time one only ate bread due to it being Seudas Shlishis, which is only mandated due to it being Shabbos and not Rosh Chodesh, proves that one’s intent was due to Shabbos. Hence, only should only recite ‘Retzei.’ He concludes that if one wishes to follow the Taz, it would be preferable to eat more bread and have intent ‘l’kavod Rosh Chodesh’ as well and then be obligated to insert both ‘Retzei’ and ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo.’

[21]On the other hand, we find that other Sefardic poskim take alternate positions. For example, Rav Ovadia Hadaya (Shu”t Yaskil Avdi, vol. 7, Orach Chaim 27:2) paskens like the Kaf Hachaim, that ‘Shev v’al taaseh adif, whereas Rav Chaim Na’eh (Ketzos Hashulchan 47:10) and the Birkas Hashem (vol. 2, pg. 404) follow the Taz, that both ‘Retzei’ and ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo’ should be inserted.

[22]Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (44:17).

[23]Luach Eretz Yisrael (5784; end Adar I).

[24]Piskei Chasam Sofer (Orach Chaim, pg. 55:14), Likutei Mahariach (citing the Divrei Chaim), Shu”t Harei Besamim (Tinyana, end 12; from Rav Aryeh Leibish Horowitz; published 1883) and Birkas Habayis (Shaar 17:37; from Rav Avraham Chaim Einhorn; published 1893).

[25]SeeShemiras Shabbos Kehilchasah (vol. 2, Ch. 57:13), Halichos Shlomo (ibid.), V’Sein Bracha (vol. 2, pg. 323; also citing Rav Elyashiv), Maadanei Shlomo (on Dalet Chelkei Shulchan Aruch, pg. 49), V’Zos Habracha (ibid.), Orchos Rabbeinu (new edition; vol. 1, pg. 165-166:12; citing the Steipler Gaon and his son Rav Chaim Kanievsky), Shu”t Yad Dodi (vol. 1, pg. 66:10), Darchei Halacha glosses to the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (ibid.), Shu”t Teshuvos V’Hanhagos (ibid; citing that this is the minhag of the ‘medakdekim’), Zemiros L’Shabbos Minchas Asher (ibid.; also citing this as the hanhagah of the Klausenberger Rebbe; concluding “mi she’ein lo minhag kavua al pi beis avosav v’rabbosav,nireh d’ra’ui linhog k’divrei haKitzur Shulchan Aruch”), and Rav Yaakov Hillel’s Ahavat Shalom Luach (ibid.).

[26]Although this sheilah would also technically occur when Shabbos concludes into a Yom Tov, this is less likely to occur. This is because there is a separate halacha that one should not start a seudah on Erev Yom Tov within three halachic hours before shkiya. See Rema (Orach Chaim 529:1), Magen Avraham (ad loc. 1), Elyah Rabba (ad loc. 3), Shulchan Aruch Harav (ad loc. 3), Mishnah Berurah (ad loc. 5 and 8), Kaf Hachaim (ad loc. 25), and Shu”t Igros Moshe (Orach Chaim vol. 3:68). This is based on a similar din in Hilchos Shabbos regarding Erev Shabbos (Orach Chaim 249:2). If one was not able to do so, then he should still have Seudas Shlishis at its usual time toward the end of the day, making sure to only eat a small amount of Pas (estimated at around a shiur of ‘k’beitzah’). Either way, although this sheilah is indeed a distinct possibility regarding Yom Tov occurring on a Motza’ei Shabbos, nonetheless, on a practical level, it comes up less commonly.

[27]The Luach Hahalachos U’Minhagim (5784; pg. 226, footnote 57) makes an interesting diyuk in the lashon of the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch and Tukachinsky Luach Eretz Yisrael – that it is preferable not to eat bread ‘balayla’ (night), to imply that this issue only occurs when it is considered vaday night. Hence, if one continued eating bread while it is still Bein Hashmashos, one would still only recite ‘Retzei.’ Piskei Teshuvos (vol. 2:188, footnote 81) makes a similar assessment, Rav Dovid Feinstein is quoted as paskening in the same vein (Shu”t Yad Dodi ibid.; “miyad le’achar haShkiya adayin lo tehiyeh ba’aya”), and V’Zos Habracha (ibid.) cites an analogous ruling from Rav Tzvi Webber, noted talmid of Rav Elyashiv, and Rav of Neve Yaakov, Yerushalayim. This also bears out from the Chasam Sofer’s minhag, that it is recorded (Piskei Chasam Sofer ibid.) that in order not to enter into this debate, he would bentch early when Rosh Chodesh was Motza’ei Shabbos – specifically prior to Tzeis Hakochavim (implying it is only an issue regarding nightfall). On the other hand, it is reported (Halichos Shlomo, V’Sein Bracha, and Maadanei Shlomo ibid.) that Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach was makpid to finish his Seudah before Shkiya when Rosh Chodesh was Motza’ei Shabbos, and that his local shul davened Mincha earlier than usual that Shabbos afternoon, to specifically accommodate this hanhagah. Similarly, in Rav Yaakov Hillel’s Ahavat Shalom Luach (ibid.) it states that optimally, ‘yizaher shelo le’echol k’zayis pas achar Shkiya k’dai shelo li’chaneis l’safek.’ See alsoOrchos Rabbeinu (ibid.) citing that both the Steipler Gaon and his son, Rav Chaim Kanievsky were makpid on not only finishing Seudas Shlishis prior to Shkiya in this case, but even bentching before then. [The author, Rav Avraham Halevi Horowitz opines that perhaps this extra chumrah is due to the shittah of the Taz, that one can be medayek in his words that as long as the seudah enters Rosh Chodesh (perhaps even without eating bread then) he would hold one must nevertheless recite both ‘Retzei’ and ‘Yaaleh V’Yavo.’ Rav Asher Weiss (Zemiros L’Shabbos Minchas Asher ibid.) writes similarly in his understanding of the Taz. Either way, as discussed previously, this hanhagah is not the halacha pesuka, but rather dependent on the actual achillah of the seudah. Hence, practically speaking, as long as one did not eat bread after shkiyah, he should only recite ‘Retzei.’]

[28]Metzudas Dovid (Mishlei, Ch. 15:30 s.v. me’ohr einayim) “He’aras einayim b’davar hamesupak yismach lev ki ain b’olam simcha k’hataras hasafeikos.”A similar saying is also cited by the Pri Megadim (Orach Chaim beg. 670, Eshel Avraham s.v. nohagin and Orach Chaim 682, Mishbetzos Zahav end 1) regarding why on Chanukah (as we say in Al Hanissim) it is fitting that the ‘Zeidim’ were given over to the ‘Oskei Torasecha.’ The Rema (Shu”t HaRema 5) and later, the Bnei Yisaschar (Maamarei Chodesh Sivan, Maamar 5:13; quoting the Rambam, without citing a specific source) make similar statements “Mi shelo Ta’am ta’am hataras hasfeikos (baTorah) lo ta’am simcha miyamav.”

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