Erev Pesach Shechal B'Shabbos: A Halachic Guide
As detailed at length in a popular multi-part series earlier this year, titled “5781תשפ"א-– An Exceptional Year,” 5781 is a year that is chock-full of rare calendarical occurrences that we are taking an active part in. Although the series delineated many fascinating phenomena, this article focuses on what is perhaps the most important of the year. And so, after considerable research into their ramifications, we now continue our halachic trek through this remarkable year…
As discussed in a previous article, this year hosted a rare and joyous Yerushalayim Purim Meshulash. Whenever there is a Purim Meshulash, there is an even greater phenomenon with great halachic ramifications that will occur exactly one month later: Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos. Thisimportant topic bears review, as it last occurred thirteen years ago - back in 5768/2008, and prior to that in 5765/2005 and 5761/2001, and is next expected in another four years in 5785/2025, followed by a long break of 20 years, in 5805/2045, and then three years later in 5808/2048.
For starters, the Erev Pesach Taanis Bechorim gets pre-empted two days earlier to Thursday. Perhaps more importantly, Bedikas Chometz cannot be done the night before Pesach as usual. Since Erev Pesach is Shabbos, Bedikas Chometz (and its Kol Chamira) must be performed on Thursday night instead. But that means that Sereifas Chometz has to take place on Friday morning, Erev Erev Pesach (still preferably done before Sof Zman Sereifas Chometz as in a regular year). But we can’t recite Kol Chamira yet, as we still need to save some chometz for the Shabbos Seudos (remember, Shabbos is Erev Pesach), as it is forbidden to eat Matzah on Erev Pesach.
Certain prep work for the Seder should preferably be done before Shabbos, as well, including checking the lettuce, making the charoses and salt water, roasting the egg and zeroa (shankbone), as well as grinding the horseradish. Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld, and cited practically by several later authorities, advises that when feasible and practical, even the Seder table should be set on Friday. Also, make sure to have Yahrtzeit candles lit from before Shabbos to enable the Yom Tov candles to be lit on Motzai Shabbos–Leil Haseder, as transference of flame (as opposed to creating a new flame) is permitted on Yom Tov. Hence, in a way, this Erev Shabbos takes on the status of a traditional Erev Pesach, even though it is truly not.
But after Kabbalas Shabbos, we are faced with a dilemma. What are we to do about our Shabbos Seudos? How are we to have our Shabbosseudos on this special day if both chometz and Matzah are forbidden for most of Shabbos day?
There are several options available; however, each comes with their own set of complications. It is important to note that on this unique day, there is no possible way to fulfill every requirement lechatchilla. It is incumbent upon us to do the best we can based on our own circumstances.
As mentioned previously, the Yerushalmi, and codified as halacha, forbids eating Matzah on Erev Pesach. Tosafos explains that this is referring to any Matzah that one may potentially fulfill his Leil Seder Matzah obligation with, as eating such Matzah a day early is akin to jumping the gun. There are actually three different shittos among the Rishonim as to when the Matzah proscription starts, and although many Acharonim maintain that the prohibition only starts from the morning, nonetheless, it seems that the common minhag follows the Rambam, that Matzah consumption is forbidden all of Erev Pesach. This is aside from the common minhag, which seems to follow those who are machmir not to eat Matzah already from Rosh Chodesh Nissan. So it seems that eating Matzah is not the way to go onErev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos.
One potential solution is to only leave over a small amount of (hopefully not crumbly) chometz for the Seudos (such as using pita for Lechem Mishneh), daven earlier than usual, perhaps K’Vasikin (HaNeitz) and immediately start the Shabbos Seudah afterwards. This is because according to all, the chometz has to be finished before Sof Zman Achillas Chometz on Shabbos,which is not very late in the day, especially if following the Magen Avraham’s opinion on this specific Zman [of calculating the day from dawn until nightfall (Alos Hashachar until Tzeis Hakochavim)], as the Mishnah Berurah recommends.
It is worthwhile to note that even when going this chometz route, it is recommended to actually have the entire Seudah Pesachdik, using only a small amount of chometz, eaten separately on/with disposables – so it can be easily disposed of and cleaned up. Some prefer that the chometz portion of the Seudah be eaten on an adjacent porch or stairwell. This should ensure that there will be no issues or mix-ups with the chometz and Pesach dishes or foods.
Optimally, if at all possible, many poskim maintain that one should try to split the seudos in order to be yotzei eating Seudas Shlishis as well, with a real Hamotzi. This entails very close timingas well as a sufficient break (and perhaps a walk) between the two seudos, and making sure to finish all chometz before Sof Zman Achillas Chometz.
Either way, afterwards, one must get rid of the rest of the chometz, brush off and clean up any chometz crumbs, rinsing and cleaning off hands and mouths, and reciting Kol Chamira – all before Sof Zman Sereifas Chometz. One can continue his seudah afterwards with Pesachdik foods. Rav Yosef Eliyahu Henkin advised that however one decides to have chometzdik seudos, this Shabbos it should be served on disposables, thus enabling a much faster and easier cleaning up process.
The Shulchan Aruch writes that on Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos, an ideal method for the Shabbos Seudos is by utilizing Matzah Ashira, “enriched Matzah,” a.k.a. Egg Matzah. This is referring to Matzah that has been produced utilizing a fruit juice instead of water in its manufacture. (“Egg Matzah” is indeed somewhat of a misnomer, as although it contains egg, the fruit juice inside is usually apple cider/juice or grape juice/wine.)
He adds that one has until the tenth hour to eat it (a half hour before Mincha Ketana), as the Mishnah explains in the beginning of Perek Arvei Pesachim that one may only be koveya a “bread” type seudah up until this time on Erev Pesach. In the Shulchan Aruch’s opinion, one can fulfill his Seudah obligations lechatchilla in this manner. Indeed, Tosafos and the Rosh both cite that Rabbeinu Tam ate Seudas Shlishis with Matzah Ashira on Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos, and this allowance is cited by the Tur and Rivash as well.
This is fine and dandy for Sefardim, who follow the psak of the Shulchan Aruch. However, this shittah is not so simple for Ashkenazim, for a various reasons:
- The Rema argues that “in our countries” we do not use Matzah Ashira, referencing Siman 462. In that location, the Rema states a general Ashkenazic aversion to Matzah Ashira’s consumption on Pesach (with a dispensation exclusively for the elderly, sick, or young children) due to several concerns, including that perhaps water may have gotten mixed in the dough and hence it may rise (chashash chimutz), and that it may get mixed up with regular Matzah.
- Several authorities understand the Rema to be ruling that the same way Matzah Ashira is prohibited on Pesach, it is as well on Erev Pesach. The Vilna Gaon ruled this way as well. Accordingly, this would not prove a proper solution for Seudos on Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos.
- On the other hand, others cite the fact that the Rema does not seem to argue on the Shulchan Aruch the next time he presents his opinion, as his intrinsic allowance of Matzah Ashira for Erev Pesach.In fact, the Aruch Hashulchan maintains that the Rema simply meant it is not worth it to produce as we do not eat Matza Ashira the whole Pesach unless “shaas hadchak l’tzorchei choleh oh zakein, who would go through the trouble of making only several Matzos Ashira just for Erev Pesach?
- Many understood the Rema as allowing Matzah Ashira on Erev Pesach, but since he was concerned about the possibility of it rising, he meant to qualify its usage akin to actual chometz. Some understanding as permitting Egg Matzah consumption up until Chatzos (halachic noon) as that is the Biblical cut-off point for chometz on Erev Pesach, and Matzah Ashira cannot be more than a Rabbinic prohibition.
- However, most understood the Rema to be ruling that as it is similar to chometz, one only has until Sof Zman Achillas Chometz to eat it, and otherwise treat it in the same manner as chometz.
Hence, time-wise, it does not practically help Ashkenazim too much to use Egg Matzah for their Shabbos Seudos instead of actual chometz, as the Egg Matzah must also be finished by Sof Zman Achillas Chometz.
An additional concern is that it is not clear what bracha one would make on Egg Matzah in this instance. Generally speaking, Egg Matzah is considered “Pas Haba’ah B’Kisnin,” whose bracha is Mezonos – unless one eats a large amount and is Koveya Seudah on it – when its bracha becomes Hamotzi. There is large debate whether using it for the Shabbos Seudah is sufficient for changing its bracha from Mezonos to Hamotzi, or if one has to eat a shiur of four K’Beitzim specifically of the Egg Matzah for this purpose.
According to Rav Yisroel Pinchas Bodner’s Sefer K’Zayis Hashaleim, a K’Zayis of standard Machine Matzah (roughly 15 grams) equals 4/10ths of a Matzah. This would mean that if one would follow the shittah that mandates a shiur of four K’Beitzim specifically of the Egg Matzah, then one would need to eat almost 3-and-a-half full Egg Matzos at each Seudah to ensure that it is properly Hamotzi.
However, it seems that in this specific case most agree with the Magen Avraham’s opinion, that all of the food consumed as part of this Shabbos meal is included in the count of Keviyus Seudah. In the words of Rav Moshe Feinstein, “there is no greater Keviyus Seudah than a Shabbos Seudah.” Even so, it is recommended to at least eat one k’beitzah - approximately one full Egg Matzah – since according to several Poskim, the bracha of Al Netillas Yadayim should only be recited over a shiur k’beitzah or more.
However, as pointed out by Rav Ovadiah Yosef, this may not hold true for Seudas Shlishis, as Hamotzi is not technically mandated as it is regarding the other Seudos, and if so, Egg Matzah’s bracha may revert to Mezonos for this seudah.
Come what may, both Rav Moshe Feinstein and Rav Mordechai Gifter recommended using Egg Matzah for the Shabbos Erev Pesach Seudos. In the words of Rav Doniel Neustadt, noted author of the Halachah Discussion series, Egg Matzah “is the preferred method for homes with small children who may scatter chometz crumbs around the house. This is also recommended for hotels, for large gatherings where Shabbos meals are being served, or for anyone who feels more secure with having no actual chometz in the house on Shabbos.”
On the other hand, the Egg Matzah solution is noticeably absent from the works of most Poskim in Eretz Yisrael, and even the Israeli Erev Pesach guides. In fact, it is extremely difficultto even find Egg Matzah commercially sold in Israel, since the Rema essentially ruled it is off limits for Ashkenazim for all of Pesach. Hence, the Israeli preference for the chometz option served in small quantities on disposables, along with a Pesachdik Seudah.
Seudas Shlishis Sheilos
This leads us to our next question. How can we fulfill Seudas Shlishis? Sefardim, following the psak of the Shulchan Aruch, can and should daven Mincha Gedolah (early Mincha) and can have an Egg Matzah based Seudas Shlishis soon after – until the 10th hour of the day. But what are Ashkenazim to do? If they cannot eat Matzah Ashira at that time (as it past both Sof Zman Achillas Chometz as well as Chatzos), is there a way to fulfill Seudas Shlishis in its (at least semi-) proper time?
The Rema writes that we should fulfill our afternoon Seudas Shlishis requirement with consuming other foods, such as fruit, or meat and fish - shehakol items, instead.  As there is no way to be fulfill every inyan lechatchilla in this situation, including the optimal Hamotzi Seudas Shlishis after davening Mincha, many later Poskim advise eating Matzah balls (Kneidlach) Shabbos afternoon after an early Mincha, for at least a Mezonos Seudas Shlishis (more germane for those who are not makpid on Sheruya/Gebrokts), even though one cannot actually be Koveya Seudah on it.
This solutionis due to the fact that one may not fulfill his Matzah obligation on Leil HaSeder with cooked Matzah.  Hence Kneidlach, although made with Matzah Meal, are nonetheless permitted to be eaten on Erev Pesach up until the 10th hour, even for Ashkenazim. On this Shabbos Erev Pesach afternoon, when neither chometz nor Matzah can be eaten, this can become an optimal manner to fulfill the Seudas Shlishis obligation, even after Mincha Gedolah, according to many authorities. 
No Seudas Shlishis?
There is an alternate view, that of Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai, that he would be Oseik B’Torah in lieu of Seudas Shlishis on Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos. The Vilna Gaon writes that this shows that the Rashbi held that on this special day, as thereis no full proper solution to fulfill Seudas Shlishis after Zman Mincha with bread, “ain takana l’davar klal”, there is no proper solution for this dilemma. Noted Kabbalist and ancestor of the Chida, Rav Avraham Azulai writes that this is the “Mitzva Hayoseir Muvcheres,” optimal manner to have this “Seudas Shlishis” in this situation, “lehashlim seudah hahi B’Divrei Torah,” to have this “seudah” with Divrei Torah instead.
The Aruch Hashulchan maintains that this proves thaton this special Shabbos Erev Pesach there is no actual obligation to have a Seudas Shlishis. Just as when Yom Kippur occurs on Shabbos it pushes off all of the Mitzvos of Shabbos, and when Rosh Hashana, Sukkos, or Purim fall out on Shabbos (like this year), the respective Mitzvos of Shofar, Lulav, and Megillah get pushed off, so too when Erev Pesach occurs on Shabbos, Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai was Oseik B’Torah instead, as the Mitzvah of Seudas Shlishis got pushed off as well.
An important reminder for this marathon Shabbos: as it is Shabbos that is immediately preceding Pesach, one may not perform any preparations on Shabbos for Yom Tov, and all Seder preparations may only beginfrom Tzeis Hakochavim, after reciting“HaMavdil Bein Kodesh L’Kodesh,” either by itself or as part of “Vatode’ainu” in the Yom Tov Maariv Shemoneh Esrei at the time that Shabbos “is going away”.
Hence, after an early Mincha and an usual Seudas Shlishis, there is not much else to do in the afternoon, except take a well-deserved nap.
Along with “Vatode’ainu” comes the remarkable YaKNeHa”Z Havdalah/Kiddush at theSeder. YaKNeHa”Z refers to the special hybrid Kiddush-Havdalah that is only recited when a Shabbos exits directly into a Yom Tov. This occurs more frequently in Chutz La’aretz than in Eretz Yisrael due to the prevalence of two-day Yomim Tovim. In Eretz Yisrael this will occur only on Leil HaSeder, whereas in Chutz La’aretz this will also occur on the last night – Shemini shel Pesach (just without the Shehechyanu bracha – making it YaKNe”H).
The word YaKNeHa”Z is an acronym of the proper order of brachos in this Kiddush/Havdalah. It stands for Yayin (Borei Pri Hagafen), Kiddush (Mekadeish Yisrael V’Hazmanim), Ner (Borei Me’orei Ha’Aish), Havdalah (Hamavdil Bein Kodesh L’Kodesh), Zman (Shehechiyanu).
To help facilitate this special Kiddush that needs its own Havdalah candle(s) that will go out by itself/themselves (in order not to unwittingly transgress the prohibition of ‘Kivui’, extinguishing, or even ‘Gram Kivui’, causing it to be it extinuished), several companies recently started making “YaKNeHa”Z Candles” (a.k.a. “avukalehs”) – small candles containing several wicks (to be classified as an ‘avuka’ – torch, for Havdalah; as opposed to the traditional one-wick candle) that go out by themselves after several minutes – made especially to facilitate easy YaKNeHa”Z performance. It is reported that Rav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv’s “face lit up with joy” the first time someone brought him one of these YaKNeHa”Z candles, as it enabled him to properly perform thisKiddush/Havdalah without any potential problems. Mi K’Amcha Yisrael!
This discussion of YaKNeHa”Z makes this author ruminate about what is possibly the oddest connection to it. In what appears to be an interesting turn of phrase, many classic Ashkenazic Illuminated Haggados over the centuries, including the Cincinnati, Ashkenazic, Prague, Venice, and Augsburg Haggados, depict an interesting phenomenon next to the hybrid Kiddush-Havdalah of YaKNeHa”Z: a rabbit hunt.
Yes, you read that right. Not even remotely related to either Kiddush or Havdalah (or in fact anything else in Yiddishkeit; except possibly the Noda B’Yehuda’s famous teshuva regarding hunting for sport or pleasure), a full-fledged rabbit hunt. Scholars theorize that the reason this picture is placed specifically at this point of the Haggada is the similar-sounding German phrase “Jag den Häs,” which translates to “Chase the Rabbit” or “Hunt the Hare.” Apparently, this was an easy, albeit whimsical way to remind the locals in their vernacular of the proper order of brachos of this Kiddush-Havdalah on Seder Night.
YaKNeHa”Z depiction in the famous Illuminated 1629 Venice Hagadda.
This year there is no Shabbos Chol HaMoed Pesach – which means more time for Chol HaMoed trips. Yet, this also means that the last Yom Tov day(s) of Pesach will have longer tefillos. This is due to the Megillah reading of Shir HaShirim. Although Megillos are ordinarily read on Yom Tov’s respective Shabbos Chol HaMoed,  when there isn’t one, they get pushed off to other days of Yom Tov.
So, in lieu of the non-existent Shabbos Chol HaMoed this year, Shir HaShirim’s reading gets pushed off to Shevii shel Pesach – which will also be the only Shabbos over Pesach this year. This also means that Klal Yisrael will actually read three Shiros on this special day of Shira: Shiras HaYam (Kriyas HaTorah), Shiras Dovid (Haftarah–Neviim), and Shir HaShirim (Megillah–Kesuvim).
An appropriate conclusion to an exceptional Erev Pesach and Pesach.
May we all merit the true Geulah this Chag Hageulah!
This article was written L’Iluy Nishmas Shoshana Leah bas Dreiza Liba and Yisrael Leizer ben Zev, and l’zechus for Shira Yaffa bas Rochel Miriam v’chol yotzei chalatzeha for a yeshua sheleimah teikif u’miyad!
For any questions, comments or for the full Mareh Mekomos / sources, please email the author: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rabbi Yehuda Spitz, author ofM’Shulchan Yehuda on Inyanei Halacha, serves as the Sho’el U’Meishiv and Rosh Chabura of the Ohr Lagolah Halacha Kollel at Yeshivas Ohr Somayach in Yerushalayim.
His first English halacha sefer, “Insights Into Halacha: Food: A Halachic Analysis,” focusing on the myriad halachos related to food, is now available in Jewish bookstores worldwide.
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There is another interesting minhag which will change for several Kehillos in Klal Yisrael this year – that of the proper haftarah for Shabbos Hagadol. Practically, the vast majority of Klal Yisrael reads “V’Arvah” (Malachi Ch. 3; concluding with the iconic “Hinei Anochi sholeiach lachem es Elyah HaNavi”) every year, and this year is no exception. [See for example, Rav Yaakov Emden’s Beis Yaakov Siddur, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (115:5), the Ezras Torah Luach, the Tukachinsky Luach Eretz Yisrael, theIttim L’vinah Luach, Rav Yaakov Hillel’s Ahavat Shalom Luach, Badatz Madrich Hakashrus (5781; Dinei U’Minhagei Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos, pg. 134:38), and Shu”t Yabea Omer (vol. 4, O.C. 39)]. Although when discussing the Arba Parshiyos, the Gemara in Megillah (29b and 30b) states that afterwards we return to the regular order of haftaros (implying that there is no special haftarah between ShabbosHachodesh and Pesach – which would include Shabbos Hagadol), nonetheless, this widespread minhag can be traced quite far back. The Maharil (Teves/Shvat/Adar), as well as the Sefer Haminhagim (Tirna/Tyrnau), mentions that “V’Arvah” is the common Ashkenazic minhag for the haftarah of Shabbos Hagadol, and this is seconded by the Levush (O.C. 430: 1). However there are earlier sources as well. The Ohr Zarua (vol. 2:393), emphatically cites it as the proper minhag every year, and it is ruled that way by his son - Haghos HaGra”ch (ad loc.). What is more interesting is that he is citing a precedent from “Teshuvos,” which is referring to Sefer HaPardes, penned by Talmidei Rashi (pg. 253). But it gets even more interesting. Sefer HaPardes cites proof to this from Rav Moshe Ben Rav Meshulam, who came from Bavel carrying Neviim that had written in the proper haftaros to each parashah, and Parashas Tzav had two listings – “V’Oloseichem” (Tzav’s regular haftarah) and “V’Arvah.” The Sefer Hapardes, and later the Ohr Zarua explain that “in order to be mekayem minhag avoseinu” it must be that “V’Oloseichem” is referring to a leap year when Tzav is read in Adar; but in a regular year when Tzav is always read right before Pesach [see Shulchan Aruch (end O.C. 428)] its proper haftarah is “V’Arvah” – meaning Shabbos Hagadol. This shows that this minhag is traced directly back to Rashi who calls it “Minhag Avoseinu” and cites proof from Bavel - which means at the very least, it dates back to the era of Gaonim. Yet, there are other minhagim, as well. As cited by the Ba’er Heitiv (O.C. 430:1), Shulchan Aruch Harav (ad loc. 3), and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (115:5), an alternate minhag is to only lein “V’Arvah” when Shabbos Hagadol is Erev Pesach – a year such as 5781. Chabad Chassidim (following the Shulchan Aruch Harav) and shuls that follow Minhag Frankfurt (including KAJ/ Breuer’s, following the Noheg K’Tzon Yosef, Shabbos Hagadol 3; thanks are due to Robert Wolff for pointing this out) or Minhag Prague (as per the Elyah Rabba ad loc. 2) will lein “V’Arvah” specifically this year – the first time in 13 years. However, there is another Minhag Frankfurt, as per Rav Yosef Yuzpa Haan, in his Yosef Ometz (698) – who ruled not to lein “V’Arvah” ever on Shabbos Hagadol, even when it is Erev Pesach. Accordingly, in Rav Binyamin Hamburger’s Machon Moreshes Ashkenaz Luach (5781, Shabbos Hagadol) he cites not to lein “V’Arvah” on Shabbos Hagadol, even this year. Thanks are due to R’ Yisroel Strauss for pointing this out. There is also a different minhag, that of the Vilna Gaon’s as per Maaseh Rav (176; writing that this was the Gr”a’s opinion at the end of his life) to davka not lein “V’Arvah” exclusively when Shabbos Hagadol is Erev Pesach, referring to it as “Heipoch Minhag Ha’Olam”. The Aruch Hashulchan (O.C. 430:5) follows this as well. So although for most of Klal Yisrael there would no difference this year in terms of Shabbos Hagadol’s haftarah, and “V’Arvah” will be read, following the precedent of the Maharshal, as first cited by the Matteh Moshe (542; see also Drishah O.C. 430:1, Levush ibid., and Rav Yaakov Emden’s Beis Yaakov Siddur), as it discusses the final redemption “Hagadol V’Hanora,” apropos for Shabbos Hagadol, nonetheless for these Kehillos, whether they specifically lein “V’Arvah” this year, or specifically not, this would qualify as another unique occurrence this year.
There is another another interesting difference in the minhagim of this year’s Shabbos Hagadol (which is Erev Pesach) and that is that there is a four-way machlokes how to recite the traditional Shabbos Hagadol Yotzros (or ‘Piyutim’): Some say the regular scheduled Shabbos Hagadol Yotzros, while others say it the previous week before because there is no reason to recite Hilchos Biur Chometz after the fact (as it had to already be done on the preceding Friday). A variation of this is to recite the second half of the piyut starting “Yayin ki” on Shabbos Hagadol, as this is still relevant (it is not clear about when to say all the rest of the Piyutim), whereas some don’t say it at all this year (following the dictum not to have extensive tefillos on Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos – even if it is Shabbos Hagadol, in order to properly eat the seudos in the prescribed time [as discussed a bit further in the article; see Mishnah Berurah (444:4), Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld’s Seder Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos, Rav Chaim Pinchas HaKohen’s Kuntress Pesach Meuvin (13; under the auspices of Rav Chaim Berlin; both of the aforementioned small sefarim were re-published in 1910), and the Tukachinsky Luach Eretz Yisrael; see also Piskei Teshuvos (430:2) for extensive treatment of these various minhagim; thanks are due to R’ Eliezer Landy for pointing this out]. Of course, for those following ‘Minhag Yerushalayim,’ as per the Vilna Gaon’s opinion [see Maaseh Rav (127), the Netziv’s Shu”t Meishiv Davar (vol. 1:13), Halichos Even Yisrael (Moadim vol. 2, pg. 440:5), Halichos Shlomo (Moadim vol. 1, pg. 18, footnote 19), and Hilchos HaGr”a U’Minhagav (pg. 119, 104)] this is essentially a moot point, as none of these Yotzros are commonly recited (certainly not during Shemoneh Esrei) in the first place.
See Terumas Hadeshen (126), Shulchan Aruch and Rema (O.C. 470:2), Ben Ish Chai Ben Ish Chai (Year 1 Parashas Tzav, Halachos Im Chal Erev Pesach B’Shabbos Kodesh 1), and Rav Yosef Eliyahu Henkin’s authoritative Ezras Torah Luach (reprinted in Shu”t Gevuros Eliyahu O.C. vol. 1:126, 7). As this Taanis Bechorim is a nidcheh and there are shittos that it gets pushed off entirely, there are more leniencies built in – such as that a father would not have to fast for his bechor who is under Bar Mitzvah – see Shu”t Yechaveh Daas (vol. 1:91, 3). On the other hand, the Steipler Gaon (Orchos Rabbeinu; new edition vol. 3, pg. 62) was known to make two siyumim – on Thursday and another one on Friday (even though such a shittah is not cited in the Shulchan Aruch or main commentaries).
See Shulchan Aruch (O.C. 444:2); citing the Tur (ad loc.) and Mordechai (Pesachim 543), quoting Rashi.
See Shemiras Shabbos Kehilchasa (Ch. 3:40) as to why this should be done prior to Shabbos and Yom Tov; Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld’s Seder Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos, Rav Chaim Pinchas HaKohen’s Kuntress Pesach Meuvin (11), Kaf Hachaim (O.C. 473:91), the Tukachinsky Luach Eretz Yisrael, Shu”t Shevet Halevi (vol. 11:116, 15), Shu”t Shevet Halevi (vol. 11:87, 1 and 116, 7), Aliba D’Hilchasa on Hilchos Pesach and Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (pg. 100), andAhavat Shalom Luach(5781; pg. 429-430).
Pri Megadim (O.C. 444: M.Z. 2), Kaf Hachaim (O.C. 473:96), Orchos Rabbeinu (new edition; vol. 3, pg. 63:5), Aliba D’Hilchasa on Hilchos Pesach and Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (pg. 103), and Ahavat Shalom Luach (5781; pg. 429-430). Some say to add more wine to the Charoses at the Seder to make sure it is soft and ‘dippable’ – see Chayei Adam (vol. 2; 130:4) and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (118:4). The Steipler Gaon (Orchos Rabbeinu ibid.) did this as well when Erev Pesach occurred on Shabbos.
See Chayei Adam (vol. 2; 130, Haseder B’ketzara end 1); Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld’s Seder Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (2), Rav Chaim Pinchas HaKohen’s Kuntress Pesach Meuvin (9),Aliba D’Hilchasa on Hilchos Pesach and Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (pg. 104), and Ahavat Shalom Luach (5781; pg. 429-430).
Pri Megadim (O.C. 444: M.Z. 2); see Mishnah Berurah (473:32), Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld’s Seder Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (2), Rav Chaim Pinchas HaKohen’s Kuntress Pesach Meuvin (9), Shu”t Shevet Halevi (vol. 11:116, 7), Aliba D’Hilchasa on Hilchos Pesach and Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (pg. 100), and Ahavat Shalom Luach (5781; pg. 429-430). This egg roasting follows the Ashkenazic minhag as codified by the Rema (O.C. 473: end 4). However, the Shulchan Aruch (ad loc.) rules that the egg should be hardboiled.
See Mishnah Berurah (473:36), Orchos Rabbeinu (new edition; vol. 3, pg. 86:73), Dinei U’Minhagei Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (13), and Aliba D’Hilchasa on Hilchos Pesach and Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (pg. 102).
In his Seder Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (end 4).
See Mishnah(Beitzah 36b and Megillah 7b), Rambam (Hilchos Yom Tov, Ch. 1:4), and Tur and Shulchan Aruch and main commentaries (O.C. 495:1 and 511).
All this, not to mention the traditional Shabbos Hagadol Drasha pre-empted to the previous Shabbos (see Mishnah Berurah 429:2 and 430:2).
This author recommends reading chapters 13-16 of Rav Moshe Dov Stein’s excellent Aliba D’Hilchasa on Hilchos Pesach and Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos, as it cites all of the backgrounds and potential solutions to the many issues that arise on this complicated day, in a clear and concise manner (as well as with extensive footnotes) for the scholar and layman alike.
See Yerushalmi (Pesachim Ch. 10, Halacha 1; “k’boel arusoso b’beis chamiv”), Tosafos (Pesachim 99b s.v. lo), Rif (Pesachim 16a in his pagination; see also Ran ad loc. s.v. Gemara Yerushalmi), Rambam (Hilchos Chometz U’Matzah Ch. 6:12; and Maggid Mishnah ad loc.), Ramban (Pesachim 15b in the Rif’s pagination, Milchamos Hashem s.v. amar), and Rema and main commentaries (O.C. 471:2). Although there have been those who tried to get around this, and proposed utilizing non-Shmurah Matzah or Matzah baked shelo lishmah for the Shabbos Erev Pesach Seudos, as one technically cannot fulfill his Seder Matzah obligation with this [see Rav Betzalel Zolty’s Shu”t Mishnas Yaavetz (O.C. 16:5)], aside from the Maharsha (Pesachim 99b on Tosafos s.v. lo) writing that any “taste of Matzah” is also prohibited on Erev Pesach [see also Shu”t Ha’Elef Lecha Shlomo (322) andShu”t Avnei Nezer (O.C. 380)], this approach has been rejected out of hand by the consensus of contemporary authorities, citing many proofs, with the possible exception “b’shaas hadchak gadol.” See Nezer Hakodesh U’Shu”t (52; adding that in his opinion eating Matzah on Friday night would transgress the prohibition of “Bal Tosif’, as it would be akin to adding a day to Pesach), Shu”t Teshuvos V’Hanhagos (vol. 2:211, 23), Shu”t Minchas Yitzchak (vol. 8:37; at length), Shu”t Lehoros Nosson (vol. 4:40), Shu”t Igros Moshe (O.C. vol. 1:155 s.v. v’hinei), Shu”t Kinyan Torah B’Halacha (vol. 3:56), Shu”t Az Nidberu (vol. 11:37), and Kovetz Teshuvos (vol. 4:44).
The three shittos as to from when Matzah is proscribed on Erev Pesach are 1) from Zman Issur Achillas Chametz (Rosh, Pesachim Ch. 3:7 and Baal Hamaor, Pesachim 83) 2) From the morning of Erev Pesach (Ran, Pesachim 16a in the Rif’s pagination s.v. Yerushalmi and Meiri, Pesachim 13b) 3) the whole 24 hour period of 14th of Nissan, including the night (Rambam, Hilchos Chometz U’Matzah Ch. 6:12; see Maggid Mishnah ad loc., and Ramban (Pesachim 15b, Milchamos Hashem s.v. amar). Many Acharonim rule like the Ran and only prohibit Matzah consumption from the daytime of Erev Pesach [including the Chok Yaakov (471:7), Elyah Rabba (ad loc. 6), Shulchan Aruch Harav (ad loc. 4), Chayei Adam (vol. 2, 129:13), and implied as well by the Mishnah Berurah (ad loc. 12)], where as others, including the Magen Avraham (471:6) and Ben Ish Chai (Year 1 Parashas Tzav 26 and Shu”t Rav Pe’alim vol. 3, O.C. 27) prohibit Matzah already from the nighttime. Indeed there seems to be a difference of understanding between the Mishnah Berurah (ibid.) and Kaf Hachaim (ad loc. 22) as to the Rema’s intent (ad loc. 2) whether he meant to rule that it is assur already from the nighttime or only from the daytime. A practical difference is whether one may have their Leil Shabbos Seudah this year on Erev Pesach with Matzah.
Shu”t Igros Moshe (O.C. vol. 1:155), adding that we should not reprimand one who is lenient following the shittos who allow Matzah consumption on Erev Pesach night. The night proscription would certainly hold true according to Rav Moshe Rosen (Nezer Kodesh U’Shu”t 52, who calls eating Matzah on this Leil Shabbos as transgressing Bal Tosif). See also the Ahavat Shalom Luach (5781; 422-423).
See Chok Yaakov (ibid.), Ba’er Heitiv (ad loc. 5), and Mishnah Berurah (ibid.).
See Shulchan Aruch (O.C. 444:1).
See MishnahPesachim (49a; following the shittah of Rabbi Eliezer bar Tzaddok), Gemara Pesachim (13a; following the similar shittah of Rabbi Elazar Ish Bartosa), Rambam (Hilchos Chometz U’Matzah Ch. 3:3), and Tur and Shulchan Aruch and main commentaries (O.C. 444).
Mishnah Berurah (443:8).
See Mishnah Berurah (444: end 14), Kuntress Pesach Meuvin (5 and 6), Shu”t Shevet Halevi (vol. 11:116, 8), Orchos Rabbeinu (new edition; vol. 3, pg. 65), the Tukachinsky Luach Eretz Yisrael,and the Badatz Madrich Hakashrus (5781; Dinei U’Minhagei Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos).
See Orchos Rabbeinu (new edition; vol. 3, pg. 63; describing the Steipler Gaon’shanhagah on Shabbos Erev Pesach), Shu”t Minchas Yitzchak (vol. 6:48; explaining that although it is generally not optimal to switch locations in the middle of a Seudah, this certainly qualifies as at least as a Mitzvah Overes [see Rema (O.C. 178: end 2) and Biur Halacha (ad loc. s.v. overes)], as akin to Biur Chometz - not to possibly have chometz crumbs all over the house), and the Badatz Madrich Hakashrus (5781; Dinei U’Minhagei Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos, vol. 2, pg. 133:31).
See Magen Avraham (444:1; citing the Mordechai, Kol Bo, and Bach), Biur HaGr”a (ad loc. end s.v. uv’medinos; “v’chein ikar”), Chok Yaakov (ad loc. end 2), Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (115:4), Mishnah Berurah (ad loc. end 8), Kaf Hachaim (ad loc. 8), Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld’s Seder Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (6; in the brackets), Kovetz Igros Chazon Ish (vol. 1:188; he writes that after a dairy morning Seudah he would take a break of a half-hour [not to come into a question of bracha she’aina tzaricha – unnecessarybracha]) before partaking in the second, fleishig Seudah), Orchos Rabbeinu (new edition; vol. 2, pg. 65), Halichos Shlomo (Moadim vol. 2, Ch. 8:15), Shu”t Shevet Halevi (vol. 11:116, 10), Minchas Asher Haggada (pg. 3:12), and Rav Moshe Mordechai Karp’s Hilchos Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (pg. 95). Rav Moshe Sternbuch (Shu”t Teshuvos V’Hanhagos vol. 2:211, 19) agrees, although adding that most authorities maintain that a full half-hour break is not necessary, as since those splitting the seudos are doing itl’chvod Shabbos, it is not considered a bracha she’aina tzaricha (see Beis Yosef O.C. 291:2), and therefore as long as one bentched and then got up from the table for a brief break of even several minutes, that should be sufficient. On the other hand, Rav Yisrael Yaakov Fischer (Halichos Even Yisrael, Moadim vol. 1, pg. 133:11) was reported to have been uneasy about doing this, as in O.C. 291:3, it is implied that this only works for being considered Seudas Shlishis after Zman Mincha (as discussed further on in the article). Hence, he personally would not split his seudos on Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos.
By either flushing the remaining crumbs down the toilet [see Mishnah Berurah (444:21) and Orchos Rabbeinu (new edition; vol. 3, pg. 63:3 and 65)] or by throwing them away in a public trashbin if there is an Eruv (see Ben Ish Chai, Year 1 Parashas Tzav, Halachos Im Chal Erev Pesach B’Shabbos Kodesh 2 and 3, Aruch Hashulchan O.C. 444:9, and Halichos Shlomo, Moadim vol. 2, Ch. 8:17) and being mafkir them and then performing bittul chometz.
See Tur (O.C. 444:4; citing his father, the Rosh), Shulchan Aruch (ad loc.), Magen Avraham (ad loc. 6), Chok Yaakov (ad loc. 6), and Kaf Hachaim (ad loc. 32).
See his authoritative Ezras Torah Luach (reprinted in Shu”t Gevuros Eliyahu O.C. vol. 1:126, 7 s.v. b’Shabbos). Rav Shmuel Halevi Wosner (Shu”t Shevet Halevi vol. 11:116, 8) wrote similarly, and this is also advised in the Badatz Madrich Hakashrus (5781; Dinei U’Minhagei Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos, vol. 2, pg. 133:31).
The Shulchan Aruch (O.C. 444:1 and 471:2) rules that one should eat Matzah Ashira on Erev Pesach and even use it for Seudas Shlishis; Tosafos (Pesachim 99b s.v. lo), Rosh (ad loc. Ch. 10:1), Tur (O.C. 471:2), and Shu”t HaRivash (402).
The Rema (O.C. 444:1 and 462:4; see Mishnah Berurah 462:15 and 471:10) writes succinctly that “Uv’Medinos Eilu” we do not use Matzah Ashira, and one should instead use fruit, meat, or fish for Seudas Shlishis. This is because he is choshesh lechatchilla for the shittos of Rashi and the Raavad that Mei Peiros can still be machmitz, as well as that we should be concerned with the possibility that some water may have become mixed in into the dough, causing it to rise -Mishnah Berurah(462:8 and 471:10). See also Magen Avraham (471:5), citing the Maharal M’Prague (Gevuros Hashem Ch. 48) and Bach (ad loc.), as well as the Pri Chodosh (beg. O.C. 462), Chok Yaakov (462:2), Elyah Rabba (471:8), Pri Megadim (M.Z. beg. O.C. 462), Ateres Zekeinim (O.C. 444:1), Minchas Chinuch (Parashas Bo, Mitzvah 10:7), Shu”t Noda B’Yehuda (Kama O.C. 22 and Tinyana O.C. 57), Shu”t Ksav Sofer (O.C. 92), Kaf Hachaim (O.C. 462:1), Mishnas Yaavetz (O.C. 16:1), and Shu”t Minchas Yitzchak (vol. 8:37 s.v. v’chein muchach, v’hinei, and uv’yoseir), as to the acceptability of Matzah Ashira (even with minimal water added to the fruit juice it was kneaded with) being used to fulfill one’s Matzah obligation at the Seder (perhaps b’shaas hadchak), and ergo, its reverse application as to its permissibility on Erev Pesach. The Maharal and Bach are of the opinion that if water is added then one would fulfill one’s Seder obligation, at least for Achillas Matza [but not “Lechem Oni”], and only if there is no water in its manufacture would it be forbidden at the Seder, but ergo permissible on Erev Pesach. On the other hand, the Magen Avraham, Chok Yaakov, and Mishnah Berurah maintain that once fruit juice is used, even if water is added as well, this Matzah Ashira cannot be used at the Seder, and hence permissible for consumption on Erev Pesach. The Pri Megadim rules that b’shaas hadchak, if one is stuck on Seder Night with only Matzah Ashira he should eat it, but without the added bracha of “Al Achillas Matzah.”
Several authorities see the Rema’s words in O.C. 444 as an outright contradiction with his reticence in O.C. 471, with the Chelkas Yoav (Shu”t O.C. 16; in the footnote at the end) concluding “tzarich iyun,” and the Sho’el U’Meishiv (Shu”t, Mahadura Kama, vol. 1:175) maintaining that the Rema intended that Matzah Ashira be prohibited the entire Erev Pesach as well. The Chok Yaakov (471:1 s.v. ul’inyan) also understood it this way and the Pri Megadim (O.C. 444 E.A. 1) implies this way as well. The Vilna Gaon (Biur HaGr”a O.C. 444:1; see also Moadim U’Zmanim vol. 3:241) cites proof from the Rambam (Hilchos Chametz U’Matzah Ch. 6:12) that it is prohibited. Interestingly, the Kaf Hachaim (ad loc. 15) writes that the minhag of many in Sefarad is similar to the minhag in Ashkenaz, and is also not to eat Matzah Ashira on Erev Pesach.
 See Mahara”ch Ohr Zarua (71), Shu”t HaRadbaz (vol. 1:429), Shu”t Noda B’Yehuda (Mahadura Kama O.C. end 21), Aruch Hashulchan (O.C. 444:5; who explains that the Rema meant it is not worth it to do as we do not eat Matza Ashira the whole Pesach unless “shaas hadchak l’tzorchei choleh oh zakein,” but not that it is intrinsically forbidden), Shu”t Igros Moshe (O.C. vol. 1:155), Mikraei Kodesh (Pesach vol. 2:45), Shu”t Teshuvos V’Hanhagos (vol. 2:211, footnote 23), and Shu”t Yechaveh Daas (vol. 1:91, 10 and 12).
Shu”t Noda B’Yehuda (Kama, O.C. end 21 s.v.u’lachein); cited by the Shaarei Teshuva (444:1 s.v. uv’medinos). This also seems to be the opinion of the Maharal M’Prague (Gevuros Hashem Ch. 48), albeit for a different reason – that although he does deem Matzah Ashira as a true Matzah (due to “B’erev Tochlu Matzos”), nonetheless he maintains that the Issur of Achillas Matzah on Erev Pesach commences along with the Biblical prohibition of consuming chometz – at Chatzos.
See Shulchan Aruch Harav (O.C. 444:3), Mishnah Berurah (462:15 and 471:10), Kaf Hachaim (O.C. 471:23; citing the Moed L’Kol Chai), Shu”t Igros Moshe (O.C. vol. 1:155), Halichos Even Yisrael (Moadim vol. 1, pg. 135), and Shu”t Shevet Halevi (vol. 11:116, 18; who writes that although until the 4th hour it is permitted meikar hadin, adds that “aval kevar nahagu lehisracheik gam mizeh;ul’tzorech kattan oh choleh ketzas efshar lehakel b’pshitus.”
See for example Shu”t Har Tzvi (O.C. vol. 1:93) and Shu”t Igros Moshe (O.C. vol. 1:155).
This is a large machlokes in Hilchos Brachos (O.C. 168:6, based on Gemara Brachos 42a). The Magen Avraham (ad loc. 17) maintains that as long as one consumes that amount from all the food in his Seudah, that would be sufficient to be Koveya Seudah and enable reciting Hamotzi on the otherwise Mezonos Pas Haba’ah B’Kisnin. The Chayei Adam (vol. 1, 54:4) and Mishnah Berurah (ad loc. 24 and Shaar Hatziyun ad loc. 19) rule this way. Others, including the Shulchan Aruch Harav (O.C. 168:8) and Aruch Hashulchan (O.C. 168:17) maintain that the shiur is referring to the Mezonos item alone, regardless of how much other food is eaten as part of the Seudah. [Rav Yisrael Pinchos Bodner relates (Sefer K’Zayis Hashalem pg. 194, end footnote 30) that this was Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach’s general position]. The Pri Megadim (E.A. ad loc. 13) seems to remain undecided. Some hold that if it is regarding a Shabbos or Yom Tov Seudah, since the Seudah is obligatory, it would turn the Mezonos item into Hamotzi. See Shaarei Teshuva (ad loc. 9), citing a three-way machlokes between the Ginas Vradim, Rav Yaakov Chagiz, and the Chida, as well as Mahara”ch Ohr Zarua (71), Shu”t HaRadbaz (vol. 1:429), and Kaf Hachaim (O.C. 444:11; citing the Maamar Mordechai ad loc. 2). Hence, this is not a simple topic. See also Shu”t Shevet Halevi (vol. 7:25).
As a Shiur K’Beitzah is double that of a K’Zayis. This is not to mention the time limit to consume them in – K’dei Achillas Pras – presumed to be between 7.5 - 9 minutes.
See Shu”t Igros Moshe (O.C. vol. 1:155), Rav Mordechai Gifter’s Pirkei Moed (on the Haggada shel Pesach, pp. 17-19), Mikraei Kodesh (Pesach vol. 2:45), and Shu”t Yechaveh Daas (vol. 1:91, 10 and 12).
See Mishnah Berurah (158:10) and Shu”t Igros Moshe (O.C. vol. 4:41).
Shu”t Yechaveh Daas (vol. 1:91, 12, pg. 281 s.v. ul’inyan habracha). Rav Moshe Dov Stein (Aliba D’Hilchasa, pg. 140:3) is medayeik similarly from Rav Moshe Feinstein’s wording (Shu”t Igros Moshe, O.C. vol. 1:155) that as part of a “Seudah Hamechuyeves” does Egg Matzah’s bracha become Hamotzi; certainly not for split morning Seudas Shlishis.
Shu”t Igros Moshe (ibid.), Pirkei Moed (ibid.). See Rav Neustadt’s article on Kashrut.com from 2008 titled “Shabbos Erev Pesach.”
For example, see the Badatz Madrich Hakashrus (5781, vol. 2 pg. 134:34) and Shu”t Shevet Halevi (vol. 11:116, 18; who writes that although until the 4th hour Matzah Ashira is permitted meikar hadin, adds that “aval kevar nahagu lehisracheik gam mizeh;ul’tzorech kattan oh choleh ketzas efshar lehakel b’pshitus.” All of this is aside from the machlokes among contemporary Sefardic Poskim whether commercially produced Matzah Ashira products are manufactured in a manner that makes them truly Kosher L’Pesach. For example, although Rav Avraham Yosef grants hashgacha to wine-based Matzah Ashira cookies based on his father, Rav Ovadiah Yosef’s shittah [see Shu”t Yabia Omer (vol. 9, O.C. 42), Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, O.C. 462:1), and Rav Shlomo Amar’s Shu”t Sheima Shlomo (vol. 4:13)], nonetheless other Sefardic Poskim, including Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, Rav Eliyahu Bakshi Doron, and Rav Yaakov Yosef expressed concerns, and forbade its use for Sefardim over Pesach [see Shu”t Binyan Av (vol. 4:24 and 25), Hanhagas Harav L’Pesach – Maran Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (par. Matzah Ashira), andhttps://www.theyeshivaworld.com/news/headlines-breaking-stories/123557.
It is actually quite apropos that many authorities teach to daven Mincha Gedolah on Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos. As Mincha is based on the Korban Tamid shel Bein Ha’arbayim (see Gemara Brachos 26b), it was generally offered in the Beis Hamikdash in the late afternoon – during the Zman of Mincha Ketana (see Rambam, Hilchos Tefillah Ch. 3:2). Yet, on Erev Pesach it was brought earlier due to the masses needing to bring their Korban Pesach. On Erev Pesach Shechal B’Erev Shabbos, the afternoon Tamid was brought even earlier – at the Zman of Mincha Gedolah (Mishnah Pesachim 58a). The conclusion of the Gemara is that according to Rabbi Akiva this also applied when Erev Pesach fell out on Shabbos (Gemara ad loc. 58b). Hence, as this day is one of the sources for allowing davening Mincha at this time, it seems appropriate to daven Mincha Gedolah on this day.
Shulchan Aruch (O.C. 444:1).
See Rema and main commentaries (O.C. 444: end 1 and 291: end 5). Rav Shmuel Halevi Wosner (Shu”t Shevet Halevi vol. 11:116, 12) adds that this would include Shehakol Pesach cakes, as they contain no grain-based products. There is a debate among the commentaries whether meat or fruit is preferable for this specific Seudas Shlishis. Meaning, would this depend on the Hamega’eish order of bracha preference (Hamotzi, Mezonos, HaG afen, Ha’E itz, Ha’A dama, Shehakol – see O.C. 211), chavivus for Oneg Shabbos, making sure not to stuff oneself (yemalei kreiso) soon before the Seder even with permitted items (O.C. 471:1), or perhaps fruit of the Shivas HaMinim of Eretz Yisrael would trump both. See Magen Avraham (444:2), Chok Yaakov (ad loc. 2), and Kaf Hachaim (ad loc.15). Alternately, the Shlah (beg. Pesachim, citing the Zohar) wrote that it is preferable to drink a Reviis of wine as Seudas Shlishis (along with Divrei Torah) after Chatzos. The Mahari Assad (Shu”t Yehuda Yaaleh Y.D. end 5 s.v. v’al) also advised using meat, fish, fruit, and wine for Seudas Shlishis. However, see Mishnah Berurah (471:6 and 7 and Biur Halacha ad loc. s.v. v’yayin) that if one wishes to go this route, he should drink either less that one cup or more than two Reviis of wine. Conversely, RavYosef Chaim Sonnenfeld (Seder Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos 6) wrote that drinking wine on Erev Pesach is forbidden already from the ninth hour (as one needs to be able to drink the Arba Kosos at the Seder properly, similar to the Matzos). See also Halichos Shlomo (Moadim vol. 2, Pesach, Ch. 8, footnote 21) at length on topic.
Many will ask, what about Kitniyos? Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (Darchei Halacha glosses to the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (115:2) writes that even Sefardim who stringent not to eat rice over Pesach, may do so on Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos. Yet, does the same apply to Ashkenazim, who are prohibited to consume Kitniyos over Pesach? [See O.C. 453; this topic is discussed extensively in my recently published sefer Insights Into Halacha: Food: A Halachic Analysis] Although there are some who maintain that in one’s morning Seudah one can have Kitniyos in his tavshil (i.e. beans in cholent) and eat it too, as Ashkenazim can technically eat Kitniyos as well until Sof Zman Achillas Chometz, plus as it is not actual chometz, one does not have to get rid of it or worry about it on Pesach itself [see Rav Chaim Pinchas HaKohen’s Kuntress Pesach Meuvin (7) and the Badatz Madrich Hakashrus; 5781, vol. 2 pg. 132)], and the Pri Megadim (O.C. 444:E.A. 2) permitted some-sort of Kitniyos Matzah [on the other hand, for a possible solution to this interesting ruling, see Sdei Chemed (Maareches Chometz, 6:2, s.v. v’hinei)], nevertheless, the Chok Yaakov (O.C. 471: end 2) ruled that “anu nohagin issur b’Kitniyos” on this day, and is cited practically by the Maharsham (Daas Torah, O.C. 453, end 1). Additionally, the Shoel U’Meishiv (Shu”t, Mahadura Kama vol. 1:175; see also Mahadura Tinyana vol. 4:128) when he prohibits Matzah Ashira on this day (as discussed previously), likens it to the prohibition of Kitniyos. See also Shu”t Shevet Halevi (vol. 3:31 s.v. umashekasav) who writes that “Minhag Avoseinu” has always been to eat fruit and meat on Erev Pesach, heavily implying that Kitniyos is prohibited, “v’ein leharher b’zeh v’hu b’chlal Poretz Geder.” Yet, in a later teshuva (Shu”t Shevet Halevi vol. 11:116, 9) Rav Wosner qualifies his ruling a bit, agreeing that technically speaking one may eat Kitniyos products on Erev Pesach morning until Zman Achillas Chometz; yet “ain k’dai laasos” to make this cholent with Kitniyos, due to issues it may create with the Pesachdik dishes, but rather advises to substitute with potatoes instead. Rav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv is quoted as ruling similarly (Siddur Pesach K’hilchaso, Ch. 16, footnote 42*) explaining that the minhag is not to consume Kitniyos from the time of Sof Zman Achillas Chometz, except in extenuating circumstances.
See Tur, Shulchan Aruch, and Rema (O.C. 291:2, 3, and 5), and Biur Halacha (ad loc. s.v. lo). As the Kaf Hachaim (O.C. 444: end 8 and O.C. 291:12) notes, this shittah of the Shulchan Aruch’s is leshittaso, as he maintains that even if one eats a Seudas Shlishis prior to the earliest Zman of Mincha – he did not fulfill his obligation even b’dieved. Accordingly, the only way to fulfill this at all is ensuring there is later Seudas Shlishis, and splitting the morning Seudah does not actually accomplish anything. And although this is the Tur’s opinion as well, on the other hand, the Rema cites precedence from several Rishonim, that this is only lechatchilla; yet if need be, one may also have his Seudas Shlishis prior to Mincha (shittah of the Ran and BeHa”G; see Beis Yosef ad loc. 2). Hence, if one splits his Seudah in the morning, although the Shulchan Aruch would hold it is irrelevant, nonetheless, according the Rema he fulfilled his Seudas Shlishis requirement, and technically does not need to rely upon the lesser levels of Seudas Shlishis fulfillment, such as consuming fruit, meat, or other Shehakol items, or even a possibly permitted Mezonos after Mincha. See the Magen Avraham’s introduction to (O.C. 291).
As mentioned previously, one should not start a seudah on Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov within three halachic hours before shkiya (see O.C. 249:2), and especially regarding prior to the Pesach Seder – as per the Mishnah in the beginning of Perek Arvei Pesachim (Pesachim 99b) and subsequent Gemaros (100b and 107a-b), and codified in Orach Chaim (471:1).
For more on this topic, see Ba’er Heitiv (O.C. 460:10), Mor U’Ketzia (end 460), Shu”t Sheilas Yaavetz (vol. 2:65), Shaarei Teshuva (ad loc. 10), the Shulchan Aruch Harav’s Sheilos U’Teshuvos Hashaychos L’Hilchos Pesach (6; end of vol. 3), Maaseh Rav (187), Machatzis Hashekel (O.C. 458:1 s.v u’divrei), Shu”t Maharshag (vol. 1, O.C. 56), and She’arim Metzuyanim B’Halacha (113:7 and 115:7; he maintains that even if one is makpid on Gebrokts the whole Pesach, kneidlach are still an excellent solution for Seudas Shlishis on Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos), as it essentially is a chumrah al gabei chumrah. On the other hand, Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld (Seder Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos, 6), and later Rav Yisrael Yaakov Fischer (Halichos Even Yisrael, Moadim vol. 1, pg.134, end footnote 12) note that for those who are makpid on Gebrokts, this would not be a proper solution. The fact that this Kneidel solution is noticeably lacking from several contemporary “How-to-Guides” to Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos [i.e., the Badatz Madrich Hakashrus, Shu”t Teshuvos V’Hanhagos (vol. 2:211), and Shu”t Shevet Halevi (vol. 11:116)] seems to prove that most take the latter approach.
See Orach Chaim (168:10 and 13). Matzah balls, which constitute ground up Matzah Meal, mixed with other ingredients, and boiled, do not have a Tzuras Hapas, nor contain a shiur K’Zayis, and are cooked, not baked. Hence, no din of Kviyas Seudah to potentially even become Hamotzi.
Gemara Pesachim (41a; following Rabbi Yosi’s shittah), Rambam (Hilchos Chometz U’Matzah Ch. 6:6), Tur and Shulchan Aruch and main commentaries (O.C. 461:4).
It is questionable whether the same can be said of fried Matzah (i.e. Matza Brei). Although the Chayei Adam (vol. 2:129,13; regarding Chremsilach) and Shulchan Aruch Harav (O.C. 471:9) categorize Matzah Metugenes with Matzah Mevusheles that should intrinsically be permitted (see following footnotes), on the other hand, the Pri Megadim (ad loc. 8) concludes tzarich iyun, and the Derech Hachaim (new edition; 192:9) explicitly differentiates between the two, writing that Kezlich (a type of fried Matzah latke) is “assur le’echol.” Presumably, this is because it still maintains the appearance, and perhaps taste of Matzah (as is true regarding Matzah Brei). Moreover, in other areas of halacha (e.g., Bassar B’Chalav – see the classic commentaries to Y.D. 87:1), we find that frying does not necessarily share the same halachic status as cooking. In his Shaar Hatziyun (444:1 and 471:20), the Mishnah Berurah twice cites both sides of this debate with no final psak, although in Hilchos Shabbos (291:25) he writes (citing the Chayei Adam, vol. 2:7, 3) that one may eat on Erev Pesach “maaseh tigun she’osin m’matzah kesusha” – a fried item sourced from ground up Matzah (sort of a fried Matzah ball?). Although Rav Ovadiah Yosef (Shu”t Yechaveh Daas vol. 1:91, 10) writes that fried Matzah is permitted on Erev Pesach, nonetheless, it seems that whatever issues arise regarding consuming cooked Matzah on Erev Pesach (see following footnotes), would certainly apply to fried Matzah as well, and then some.
See Maharil (Drashos, Hilchos Shabbos Hagadol; cited briefly by the Magen Avraham 444:2) who writes that technically speaking cooked Matzos (Matzos Mevushalos) should also be perfectly acceptable as one cannot fulfill his Leil Seder Matzah Mitzva with them, but “lo ra’isi nohagim kein”. The Shulchan Aruch Harav (ad loc. 4) writes similarly, concluding “ela she’ain nohagin kein.” On the other hand, see Hagahos Rav Akiva Eiger (end O.C. 471), Chok Yaakov (471:9 and 10), Chayei Adam (vol. 2, 139:13), Derech Hachaim (192:9), Pri Megadim (O.C. 471, E.A. 8), Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (113:5), Aruch Hashulchan (444:5), Mishnah Berurah (444:8 and 471:20), Daas Torah (O.C. 444: end 1), Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld’s Seder Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (3), Rav Chaim Pinchas HaKohen’s Kuntress Pesach Meuvin (6), She’arim Metzuyanim B’Halacha (115:7), Rav Mordechai Eliyahu’s Darchei Halacha glosses to the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (115:2), and Halichos Even Yisrael (Moadim vol. 1, pg. 133:12), all of whom enthusiastically write that Kneidlach are the preferred option for Seudas Shlishis. Although there are opinions that one may not eat Matzah Mevusheles on Erev Pesach [includingthe Rav Shlomo Kluger (Shu”t Ha’Elef Lecha Shlomo 322; citing precedence from the Maharsha, Pesachim 99b on Tosafos s.v. v’lo, that “Taam Matzah is assur on Erev Pesach”), Yosef Ometz (729), Rav Yonason Eibeshutz (Elef Hamagen 471:1; due to it being potentially worse than the Mezonos Matzah Ashira, as Matzah Mevusheles is real satiating Hamotzi Matzah that was simply cooked), and Shu”t Beis Dovid (O.C. 247; due to Matzah already being prohibited before cooking it; however, the Chida in his Shu”t Yosef Ometz (79) disproves this theory, as Matzah is not intrinsically prohibited prior to Pesach)], and this is reported to be the Vilna Gaon’s opinion as well (for example, see Shaar Hatziyun 444:1), nonetheless, several contemporary Poskim contest this understanding and maintain that the Gr”a and the other Machmirim were referring to whole Matzos that were cooked or boiled, not ground up Matzah (Meal) that was mixed with other ingredients and then boiled to form Kneidlach (see Rav Moshe Mordechai Karp’s Hilchos Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos pg. 93). This author heard similarly from Rav Nochum Eisenstein as to his Rebbi, Rav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv’s predilection for this shittah as well, prior to the last Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos, back in 5768. [See also the recent sefer Hanhagos Rabbeinu (pg. 188:5) that Rav Elyashiv was very makpid to eat kneidlach made from his Pesach Matzos on Shabbos Hagadol (see also Ba’er Heitiv, O.C. 430:1; citing the Rashal).] Rav Yisrael Yaakov Fischer (Halichos Even Yisrael ibid.) made a similar point, that perhaps as the Gr”a held that a Seudas Shabbos is contingent on the ability to make Hamotzi [as discussed in a previous article titled “More Common Kiddush Questions: Kiddush B’Makom Seudah”], this is why he would not agree to any other potential solutions on Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos (as he himself wrote in his Biur HaGr”a, O.C. 444:1 end s.v. uv’medinos), but not that he would hold that eating Kneidlach is prohibited. Moreover, as cited by the Kaf Hachaim (O.C. 291:32 and 444:12 and 16), the Beis Yosef’s Maggid informed him (Maggid Meisharim, Parashas Tzav s.v. Ohr L’Yom Shlishi Shel Pesach) of the importance of this Seudas Shlishis containing “Yehei M’Tavshilla,” a cooked food item. Somewhat alternately, the Mahari Assad (Shu”t Yehuda Yaaleh Y.D. end 5 s.v. v’al) writes that regarding “Dvar Matzah Mevusheles shekorin Kugel v’Kneidel” on Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos that he did not rule on the subject, “lo issur v’lo hetter,” and that in his Shabbos Hagadol Drasha he advised using meat, fish, fruit, and wine for Seudas Shlishis.
In somewhat of a similar vein, Rav Ovadiah Yosef (Shu”t Yechaveh Daas vol. 1:91, 12) advised cooking whole Matzos as an excellent solution for all of the Seudos on Erev Pesach Shechal B’Shabbos, all the way up until the 10th hour on Shabbos. On the other hand, as this is the specific case that the Maharil, Shulchan Aruch Harav, and other Poskim were wary of (see previous footnote), it seems others were not as enthusiastic about this application. Indeed, the Yosef Ometz’s issue with cooked Matzah was regarding large pieces cooked that still maintained the Matzah’s form and taste, and this fits the issues raised by Rav Yonason Eibeshutz and Rav Shlomo Kluger regarding Matzos Mevushalos as well (as opposed to Matzah balls). Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichos Shlomo, Moadim vol. 2, Pesach, Ch. 8:13) agreed to this solution only for the Leil Shabbos Seudah, stating that the Poskim who did not allow this were referring to Erev Pesach daytime, but not the preceding night. Rav Yaakov Hillel’s Ahavat Shalom Luach raises an additional issue: Matzah’s preponderance to fall apart and disintegrate when cooked whole. Hence, lemaaseh, this may not prove such a practical solution.
See Magen Avraham (O.C. 444:2), quoting the Shlah citing the Zohar in Parashas Emor.
Biur HaGr”a (ad loc. 1 end s.v. uv’medinos) and Hagahos Mohar”a Azulai on the Levush (ad loc. 1). Rashi (Pesachim 13a s.v. mazon; as pointed out by R’ Yisroel Strauss) implies this way as well. Rav Yitzchok Dovid Frankel, author of Yad Dodi recently related to this author that Rav Dovid Feinstein zt”l told him back in 1974 that there is no Seudas Shlishis on Erev Pesach Shechal Shabbos and that this was the explicit opinion of Rav Moshe Feinstein zt”l, although not mentioned in Shu”t Igros Moshe. Since then, whenever Erev Pesach was Shabbos this has been in every mailing from their Yeshiva - Mesivta Tiferes Yerushalayim (MTJ) - including this year.
Aruch Hashulchan (ad loc. 6). See also the Aruch Hashulchan’s comments to O.C. 472:2, where he similarly explains another seeming contradiction of the Rema’s from Hilchos Sukka (639:3) where he implies that one may not be Koveya a Seudah on Erev Pesach already from Chatzos (as opposed to the later 10th hour). The Aruch Hashulchan explains (leshitaso) that since Ashkenazim have no real recourse for an actual Seudah at that time, there was no need to mention it in Hilchos Pesach.
See Gemara Beitzah (2a), Rambam (Hilchos Yom Tov Ch. 1:19), Tur and Shulchan Aruch and main commentaries (O.C. 513:1).
See Rambam (Hilchos Tefilla Ch. 2:12) and Tur and Shulchan Aruch (O.C. 492:2 and 599:1), based on Gemara Brachos (33b). It is important to note that it is only when Motzai Shabbos is Yom Tov when “HaMavdil Bein Kodesh L’Kodesh” is recited and effective as a Havdalah. In the reverse scenario, when Motzai Yom Tov is Shabbos - there is no Havdalah, due to the increase of Kedusha from Yom Tov to Shabbos and din of Tosefes Shabbos. [In such a case, and as opposed to when Yom Tov immediately follows Shabbos (when this would be forbidden), one may prepare on Yom Tov for Shabbos, but exclusively when an Eruv Tavshilin was performed before said Yom Tov.See Orach Chaim (527) at length, based on Mishnah and Gemara in the beginning of the second Perek of Beitza (15b).]
Of course, only after reciting the Haggada from “Avadim Hayinu” according to the Rema (O.C. 430; citing the Sefer Haminhagim) [but not to recite it according to the Gr”a and Yaavetz (see Biur Halacha and Mor U’Ketzia ad loc. see also She’arim Metziyanim B’Halacha 107:5; who writes that many Gaonim and Tzaddikim only recite the first pasuk, in order not to mevattel the minhag), and/or reciting the Parasha of the Korban Pesach (see Luach Eretz Yisrael and Shu”t Teshuvos V’Hanhagos vol. 2:211, 24). One should not say that he is taking a nap to prepare for the Seder.
Although this Kiddush/Havdalah will indeed merit a YaKNeHa”Z candle, it is not actually a true YaKNeHa”Z Kiddush, but rather YaKNe”H, as Shevii shel Pesach/Acharon shel Pesach is/are the one day(s) of Yom Tov that do(es) not have a Shehechiyanu bracha, as it/they is/are still part and parcel of Pesach proper (as opposed to Shemini Atzeres and Sukkos). Thanks are due to R’ Yisroel Strauss for pointing this out.
See Gemara Pesachim (102b-103a), Rambam (Hilchos Shabbos Ch. 29:22 and Maggid Mishnah ad loc.), Matteh Efraim (600:2), and Aruch Hashulchan (O.C. 473:5).
On this topic, as well as to the permissibilty of placing matches and/or candles together and/or then taking them apart on Yom Tov, as well as if it may be preferable to simply recite the bracha on the Yom Tov candles and not a halachic ‘avuka’ in this instance, see Elef HaMagen (on the Matteh Efraim 620:3; citing Yesod V’Shoresh Ha’Avodah, Shaar 9, Ch. 5), Mishnah Berurah (502:19 and 20 and Biur Halacha 514:2 s.v. v’yichbeh b’meheirah), theShulchan Aruch Harav’s Lekutei Taamim U’Minhagim L’Haggada shel Pesach (at the end of vol. 3; Kadeish, Havdalah), Shu”t Igros Moshe (O.C. vol. 5:20, 30), Shu”t Ba’er Moshe (vol. 8:184), Shu”t Mishnah Halachos (vol. 8:217), Shemiras Shabbos Kehilchasa (vol. 2, Ch. 62:18 and vol. Tikkunim U’Miluim ad loc. footnote 31), Orchos Rabbeinu (new edition; vol. 2, pg. 133:43), Yom Tov Sheini Kehilchaso (Ch. 1:20; and extensive footnotes), Halichos Shlomo (Moadim vol. 2, Ch. 9, footnote 155 s.v. uv’taam), Halichos Even Yisrael (Moadim vol. 1, pg. 162-163:7-9 and pg. 273-274:6-7), Rav Pesach Eliyahu Falk’s Zachor V’Shamor (original edition, vol. 7, pg. 33-e and 52-d), and Rav Shimon Eider’s Sefer Hilchos Shabbos (pg. 263 and footnote 34).
See Shulchan Aruch, Rema, and main commentaries (O.C. 298:2; as well as Hagahos Rav Akiva Eiger, Y.D. 11:1 s.v. u’shnei’ neiros; citing the Orach Mishor), based on Gemara Pesachim (103b).
Alon Shoalin U’Dorshin (#137, Rosh Hashana 5781), from Rav Elyashiv’s noted talmid Rav Ben Tzion Kook.
As per the renowned Beit HaTefutzot museum in Tel Aviv.
Shu”t Noda B’Yehuda (Tinyana Y.D. 10).
This author has recently heard a similar-type of explanation for the “minhag” to eat stuffed cabbage on Hoshana Rabba: “Kohl Mit Wasser” (pronounced “Vasser”) – “Cabbage (cooked) with Water,” sounds similar to the special Tefilla recited on Hoshana Rabba associated with the klopping of Hoshanos: “Kol Mevasser.”
Rema (O.C. 490:9; citing the Abudraham, Hilchos Tefillas HaPesach, pg. 266 s.v. nahagu, and O.C. 663:2; citing the Maharil, Seder Tefillos Chag HaSukkos). See also Levush (O.C. 490:5 s.v. v’korin and 9 s.v. v’im and 666:2 s.v. v’omrim), Biur HaGr”a (O.C. 490:14), Magen Avraham (ad loc. 8), Mishnah Berurah (ad loc. 17), and Shu”t Igros Moshe (O.C. vol. 4:99, 2).
For those who ask how these Megillos can be specifically read on Shabbos Chol HaMoed, when there is a Gezeiras Chazal against reading the Megillah on Shabbos due to possibly carrying it on Shabbos, this is not an issue with Shir HaShirim or Koheles. That Gez eira only applies to Mitzvos Hayom incumbent as outright obligations, such as Shofar on Rosh Hashana, Lulav on Sukkos, and Megillas Esther on Purim. The public leinings of Koheles on Sukkos and Shir HaShirim on Pesach are not chiyuvim, but rather Ashkenazic minhagim. There is a machlokes HaPoskim whether or not a bracha may be made on them at all at their leinings, and the halachic consensus is that unless these Megillos are being leined from actual kosher Megillah written on klaf [as is Minhag Yerushalayim based on the Vilna Gaon; see Maaseh Rav (175), Rav Yechiel Michel Tukachinsky’s authoritative Luach Eretz Yisrael (5781, Yom Tov Rishon shel Sukkos), and Halichos Even Yisrael (Moadim vol. 1, pg. 197-198:4 and Moadim vol. 2, pg. 307:7); Shechiyanu is recited as well] then a bracha would not be recited on these Megillos. See Maseches Sofrim (Ch. 14:3), Hagahos Maimoniyus (Hilchos Taaniyos Ch. 5:2), Sefer Haminhagim (Tirna/Tyrnau; Pesach 26), Beis Yosef (O.C. 559 s.v. kasvu), Bach (ad loc. end s.v. hagahos),Darchei Moshe (O.C. 490:1), Rema (O.C. 490:9, O.C. 663:2), Teshuvos HaRema (35), Levush (ad loc. 5 s.v. v’korin), Biur HaGr”a (ad loc. 14), Magen Avraham (ad loc. 9), Taz (ad loc. 6), Elyah Rabba (ad loc. 6), Chok Yaakov (ad loc. 11), Ba’er Heitiv (ad loc. 9), Pri Megadim (ad loc. E.A. 9), Aruch Hashulchan (ad loc. end 5), Mishnah Berurah (ad loc. 19 and Shaar Hatziyun 14), and Kaf Hachaim (ad loc. 81). Moreover, as this inyan is conspicuously absent from the words of the Shulchan Aruch, Sefardim do not lein these Megillos at all over the respective Yomim Tovim. In the words of Rav Yaakov Hillel’s Ahavat Shalom Luach (5781; Chag HaSukkos, Yom Tov Rishon shel Sukkos) “Lo nahagu likro Megillas Koheles afilu b’lo bracha… u’delo k’Rama.” Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Yalkut Yosef, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, O.C. 490:6) adds that a Sefardi davening in an Ashkenazic shul should not even answer Amen to the bracha on these Megillos. Hence there is no Gezeira against reading these Megillos on Shabbos.
Rema (O.C. 490:9). See also Magen Avraham (ad loc. 6; citing the Levush O.C. 584:3), and Mishnah Berurah (ad loc. 13).
Thanks are due to R’ Yisroel Strauss for pointing this out. Actually, for those of us in Eretz Yisrael who follow the Vilna Gaon’s shittah regarding the Shir shel Yom, there is a fourth Shira recited on Shevii shel Pesach – the Shir shel Yom is the similar Shiras Dovid in Tehillim (Ch. 18), “Lamnatze’ach L’Eved Hashem.” See Maaseh Rav (194) and the Tukachinsky Luach Eretz Yisrael (Shevii shel Pesach).
Disclaimer: This is not a comprehensive guide, rather a brief summary to raise awareness of the issues. In any real case one should ask a competent Halachic authority.
L'iluy Nishmas the Rosh HaYeshiva - Rav Chonoh Menachem Mendel ben R' Yechezkel Shraga, Rav Yaakov Yeshaya ben R' Boruch Yehuda, and l'zchus for Shira Yaffa bas Rochel Miriam and her children for a yeshua teikef u'miyad!