Insights into Halacha

For the week ending 3 September 2016 / 30 Av 5776

The Double-Header Haftarah

by Rabbi Yehuda Spitz
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Directly due to the interesting circumstances of this week, Parshas Re’eh / Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Elul, an unusual occurrence will transpire in a fortnight on Parshas Ki Seitzei: a double haftarah. Not a printing mistake, this double haftarah will actually be recited by the vast majority of Ashkenazic congregations worldwide.

Many do realize this special occurrence even exists. In fact, one recent time this occurred, when I mentioned the uniqueness of this situation to the gabbai on that Shabbos itself, he responded that he had never heard of a double haftarah! He maintained that at the hashkama minyan, filled with Bnei Torah, not a single one pointed out such a thing! [No, I did not daven Haneitz that Shabbos.] I had to show this ruling to him explicitly in both the Mishnah Berurah and the Tukachinsky Luach Eretz Yisrael, before he consented to allow the Baal Koreh to read both haftaros. However, his skeptical response was quite understandable, as the previous occurrence of a double haftarah to that Shabbos was fourteen years prior!

Haftarah History

To properly understand why there can be a double haftarah, some background is needed.

The haftaros were established when the wicked Antiochus (infamous from the Chanukah miracle) outlawed public reading of the Torah. The Chachamim of the time therefore established the custom of reading a topic from the Nevi’im similar to what was supposed to be read from the Torah.[1] Even after the decree was nullified, and prior to the Gemara’s printing, this became Minhag Yisroel.

Most haftaros share some similarity with at least one concept presented in the Torah reading. The Gemara Megillah (29b - 31a) discusses the proper haftarah readings for the various holidays throughout the year. The Pesikta (an early Midrash cited by many early authorities including Tosafos and the Abudraham)[2] continues the teachings of Chazal as to the proper haftarah readings starting from the Fast of Shiva Assur B’Tamuz.

During the ‘Three Weeks’ from 17 Tamuz until Tisha B’Av, we read ‘Tilasa D’Paranusa’, ‘Three Readings of Punishment’. After Tisha B’Av (starting with Shabbos Nachamu, dubbed so due to its haftarah, Nachamu Nachamu Ami) until Rosh Hashanah, ‘Shiva D’Nechemta’, or ‘Seven Readings of Consolation’ are read.[3] This is followed by a reading of Teshuva,[4] during the Shabbos between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, aptly named ‘Shabbos Shuva’, for its repentance themed haftarah starting with ‘Shuva Yisrael’. The AbuDraham, as well as Rabbeinu Tam, conclude that these special haftarah readings are so important, that they are never pushed off!

Head To Head Haftaros

Our dilemma arises when that rule goes head-to-head with another rule. The Gemara (Megillah 31a) states that whenever Rosh Chodesh falls out on Shabbos, a special haftarah is read: ‘Hashamayim Kisi’, as it mentions both the inyanim of Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh.[5] If Rosh Chodesh falls out on Sunday, then on the preceding Shabbos the haftarah of ‘Mochor Chodesh’ is read, as it mentions the following day being Rosh Chodesh.

The $64,000 question becomes, what happens when Rosh Chodesh Elul falls out on Shabbos or Sunday? Which ruling trumps which? Do we follow the Gemara or the Pesikta? Do we stick with the ‘Shiva D’Nechemta’ or the special Rosh Chodesh reading?

The answer is that there is no easy answer! In fact, the Mordechai[6] cites both as separate, equally valid minhagim, with no clear cut ruling! So what are we supposed to do? Which minhag do we follow?

Sefardic Selection

The Beis Yosef[7] writes that the ikar halachah follows the Abudraham as he was considered an expert in these topics. Consequently, in the Shulchan Aruch,[8] he rules that on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Elul only that week’s haftarah of consolation, ‘Aniyah So’arah’ is read. This would also hold true if Rosh Chodesh fell on Sunday, that only that week’s haftarah of consolation would be read, and not ‘Machar Chodesh’.[9] This is the general Sefardi ruling on this topic.[10]

Ashkenazic Action

Yet, the Rema, citing the Sefer Haminhagim of Rav Yitzchak Isaac Tyrnau (Tirna), a contemporary of the Terumas Hadeshen and Maharil (late 1300s - early 1400s), argues that since the special reading of Shabbos Rosh Chodesh also contains words of consolation, it is therefore the proper reading, even for Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Elul.[11] Moreover, this reading is mentioned specifically by the Gemara as the proper reading for Shabbos Rosh Chodesh, with no special dispensation given for Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Elul. Additionally, since it is recited more often (as Shabbos Rosh Chodesh falls out at least twice a year) one will fulfill the Talmudic dictum of ‘tadir v’sheino tadir, tadir kodem[12], that preference is given to the more common practice, by reading this haftarah instead.[13]

Parenthetically, and conversely, if Rosh Chodesh would fall out on Sunday, all would agree that only that week’s haftarah of consolation would be read, as there is no conciliatory theme in ‘Mochor Chodesh’.

Ground Rule Double

However, by maintaining the Rosh Chodesh priority, it would seem that we would miss out on one of the ‘Shiva D’Nechemta’, as there are not enough weeks before Rosh Hashanah to fit in all seven of these special haftaros when one of the haftaros [occurring when Rosh Chodesh falls out on Parshas Re’eh] is taken up by ‘Hashamayim Kisi’. Yet, the Pesikta and Rishonim stressed the importance and necessity of each and every one of them being read.

Therefore, the Sefer Haminhagim maintains that we need to make up the missing haftarah, and it is done as an addition, on Parshas Ki Seitzei, two weeks later. The reason is that the haftarah of Parshas Re’eh, ‘Aniyah So’arah’ in the original Navi (Yeshaya Ch. 54: 11) follows consecutively after the haftarah of Parshas Ki Seitzei, ‘Runi Akara’ (Yeshaya Ch. 54: 1). Therefore, this solution turns two separate haftaros into one long double header[14] and thereby fulfills everyone’s requirement to hear all seven of the Conciliatory Haftaros.

This resolution of having a double-header haftarah on Parshas Ki Seitzei when Rosh Chodesh Elul falls out two weeks earlier on Parshas Re’eh is cited and actually codified in halachah by many authorities including the Rema, Levush, Matteh Efraim, Magen Avrohom, Chayei Adam, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch and, as mentioned previously, the Mishnah Berurah and Tukachinsky Calendar[15] is the definitive Ashkenazic ruling. Sefardim, on the other hand, do not have this interesting occurrence, as they follow the Shulchan Aruch’s rule of never pushing off any of the ‘Shiva D’Nechemta’, and thereby never having the need to double up haftaros.[16]

One need not worry about flipping pages to keep up with this double haftarah; it can be easily found in its full (combined) glory as the singular haftarah of Parshas Noach, as one of the topics mentioned in it is a reference to the Great Deluge, referred to as the ‘Mei Noach’.

Those who miss this unique opportunity should not fret too much, as we don’t have to wait an additional fourteen years to have a Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Elul. In fact, aside for last year and this year, it will fall out several times over the next eight years.[17] Hopefully by then the gabbai will remember that double headers are not exclusively reserved for ballgames.

The author wishes to thank R’ Yoel Rosenfeld and R’ Shloime Lerner for raising awareness of this unique issue, and serving as the impetus for my interest and research in this topic.

This article was written l’zechus Shira Yaffa bas Rochel Miriam v’chol yotzei chalatzeha for a yeshua sheleimah teikif u’miyad!

For any questions, comments or for the full Mareh Mekomos / sources, please email the author:

Rabbi Yehuda Spitz serves as the Sho’el U' Meishiv and Rosh Chabura of the Ohr Lagolah Halacha Kollel at Yeshivas Ohr Somayach in Yerushalayim.

[1] As per the Tosafos Yom Tov (Megillah, Ch. Bnei Ha’Ir, Mishnah 4 s.v. l’chisidran) citing the Sefer Hatishbi (Shoresh Petter). A similar background is given by the Abudraham (Seder Parshiyos V’Haftaros).

[2] Including the Machzor Vitry (261 - 262), Abudraham (ibid.), the Mordechai (Megillah, end Ch. Bnei Ha’Ir 831, end s.v. haghah), Tosafos (Megillah 31b s.v. rosh), Ran (ad loc.), and Rashba (ad loc.).

[3] See Machzor Vitry and Abudraham (ibid.) for two separate reasons why the Shiva D’Nechemta are in its specific order.

[4] Although the Pesikta, according to the Abudraham, maintains that there should be two haftaros of repentance, common minhag is that only one, Shuva Yisrael, is read on a Shabbos. The other, Dirshu Hashem Bi’Heematzo, is read on Tzom Gedalyah (by Mincha) instead. [This is especially important, as the Gemara Rosh Hashana 18a explains that this is referring to the Aseres Yemei Teshuva.] See Tosafos (ibid.), Tur (Orach Chaim 428: 8) and Beis Yosef (ad loc. end s.v. uma”sh).

[5] See also Shu”t Noda B’Yehuda (Tinyana, Orach Chaim 11).

[6] Mordechai (ibid).

[7] Beis Yosef (Orach Chaim 425: 1 s.v. uma”sh), Abudraham (ibid.).

[8] Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 425: 1).

[9] See however Shu”t Divrei Malkiel (vol. 3: 27), who opines that for Sefardim it is possible that ‘Machar Chodesh’ would still be the proper reading as it mentions the ‘Kevius of Rosh Chodesh in its proper time’.

[10] See Kaf Hachaim (Orach Chaim 425: 13), Shu”t Rabbi Eliyahu Mizrachi (7), Shu”t Yechaveh Daas (vol. 3: 45), Rav Mordechai Eliyahu’s Darchei Halacha glosses to the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (128: 5), and Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim 581, par. Ode B’Hilchos Chodesh Elul 7). The Rambam (Hilchos Tefilla Ch. 13: 14) actually implies this way as well.

[11] Rema (Orach Chaim 425: 1 & in Darchei Moshe ad loc.), based on the Sefer Haminhagim (whom he refers to as ‘Minhagim Shelanu’, beg. Ch. Minhag shel Rosh Chodesh Elul v’Erev Rosh Hashana). He mentions that several other Rishonim, including the Ohr Zarua, Mahar”i Weil, and the Tur rule this way as well.

[12] See, for example, Brachos 59b, Megillah 29b, Pesachim 114a, Sukka 54b & 56a, and Zevachim 91a.

[13] These additional reasons were not written by the Sefer Haminhagim himself, but are found in the Haghos there (90), as well as in the works of later authorities mentioned in this article.

[14] For more on the topic of the halachic feasibility of combining two haftaros of the ‘Shiva D’Nechemta’, see Terumas Hadeshen (vol. 2, Psakim U’Ksavim 94) and Shu”t Tzemach Tzedek (126).

[15] Including the Levush (Orach Chaim 425: 2 & 581: 1), Matteh Efraim (581: 5), Sha’arei Efraim (Sha’ar 9: 23), Magen Avrohom (425: 1), Machatzis Hashekel (ad loc.), Ba’er Heitiv (425: 2), Derech Hachaim (Sha’ar Hakollel 8), Shulchan Atzei Shittim (Krias HaTorah 6), Chayei Adam (vol. 2, 118: 16), Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (128: 4), Mishnah Berurah (425: 7), Luach Eretz Yisroel (5775 and 5776, Elul, Parshas Ki Seitzei), and Rav Yosef Eliyahu Henkin’s Ezras Torah Luach (5775 and 5776, Elul, Shabbos Parshas Re’eh s.v. Shacharis and Parshas Ki Seitzei). See also Aruch Hashulchan (Orach Chaim 425: 5 & 428: 7) and Shu”t Minchas Chein (vol. 2, Orach Chaim 23).

[16] In many Sefardic congregations, on Parshas Re’eh the first and last pasuk of “HaShamayim Kisi” is still read (as well as the first and last pasuk of “Mochor Chodesh” if applicable), as otherwise, they would not have read it at all this time around. See Rav Mordechai Eliyahu’s Darchei Halacha glosses to the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (128: 4) and Yalkut Yosef (ibid.) who cite such a minhag, in order to at least catch some of “HaShamayim Kisi” (and “Mochor Chodesh”). For Ashkenazim who end up reading both haftaros, there is no need to do so.

[17] According to Rabbi Dovid Heber of the Star-K and author of Shaarei Zemanim, for most Ashkenazic Kehillos this double haftarah is actually read 70 times in the Tur’s (Orach Chaim end 428) 247-year cycle, making it overall not that uncommon. In fact, with the similar calendar setup of 5775 and 5776, this will actually occur in back to back years.

Disclaimer: This is not a comprehensive guide, rather a brief summary to raise awareness of the issues. In any real case one should ask a competent Halachic authority.

L'iluy Nishmas the Rosh HaYeshiva - Rav Chonoh Menachem Mendel ben R' Yechezkel Shraga, Rav Yaakov Yeshaya ben R' Boruch Yehuda.

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