JEWISH HISTORY TIMELINE
Events listed did not necessarily happen at the year listed, rather on or in-between that date and the next.
|1-2000||2000 years of tohu vavohu - null and void||Creation, Flood, Babel|
|1948||Birth of Abraham in Ur Chasdim, or Ur of the Chaldeas
Center of Sumerian culture.
|Early Bronze Age
Noachide Laws, Chaldean and Sumerian Culture
|1951||Abraham begins to doubt idols, and search for truth||Ziggurats of Ur|
|2000||Beginning of the 2000 years of Torah||1760|
|2000||Abraham and Sarah start teaching Torah. Beginnings of monotheism as a way of life||Code of Hammurabi||1760|
|Birth of Ishmael - son of Abraham and Hagar
Birth of Isaac. Circumcision of Abraham and his family
|2085||Akeidat Yitzchak. The Binding and Near Sacrifice of Isaac.
Isaac and Rebecca. Jacob and Esau. Blessings and Birthright.
|2108||Jacob, Rachel & Leah, 12 Sons = 12 Tribes. Transition from being a family to being a nation. Jacob fights with the angel and is given the name Israel, Yisrael||Hyksos, Shepherd kings, invade Egypt.||1652|
|2199||Joseph is sold by his brothers and is taken to Egypt.
Eventually due to his dream interpretations he becomes the Viceroy of Egypt - Ztaphenat Phaneach
|Hyksos driven out of Egypt.||1561 1567|
|2238||Entry into Egypt by the 70 members of the family of Jacob Settlement in the Land of Goshen - Shepherds||18th Dynasty||1522|
|2331||Enslavement begins with the death of the last of the 12 sons of Jacob, Levi. Birth of Miriam. Amram, Levi's grandson marries Yocheved, Levi's daughter. They have 3 children Miriam, Aaron and Moses (Batya, daughter of Pharaoh finds Moses in Nile and brings him up in Pharaoh's palace)||Thutmose IV? Pitom (Tanis) & Ramses||1429|
|2368||Moses - Moshe - 5 levels of test before he is chosen as a prophet at the Burning Bush 1. Leaving palace to identify with brothers 2. Saving Jew from Egyptian oppression 3. Saving one Jew from another 4. Saving one stranger from another stranger. Justice, mercy and humility. 5. Brings water to sheep.||1392|
|2448||Exodus, Desert Plagues, Red Sea, Manna, Clouds of Glory, Well of Miriam.||Thutmose III?||1312|
|2448||Revelation at Mt. Sinai. Written & Oral Laws given to the entire Jewish people - 3,000,000 prophets.. Moses' prophecy and authority confirmed by personal experience of every Jew; therefore no prophets or miracles etc. may challenge laws received at Sinai. - Bava Metzia 59a - "Not in heaven." Golden calf (replacement of Moses, not G-d!) Yom Kippur - atonement, Teshuvah, 2nd tablets. 12 spies & lack of faith - decree - 9th of Av.||1312|
|2488||Moses write 13 scrolls of the complete Torah and gives one to each tribe, and puts one in the Holy Ark.
Death of Moses outside of Israel - burial place unknown
|2489||Joshua - disciple of Moses becomes the leader of the Jewish people. First ordination - semichah - in history.
Entry into Israel - 10th of Nissan. Battle of Jericho, Rachav & spies. (Biblical Archaeology Review - pottery, grain intact, no looting, burnt, collapsed walls, Egyptian relics) 7 years of conquest, 7 years of settlement. East bank and West bank of Jordan. 31 Canaanite city states. Altar at Gilgal, Blessings & curses on Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Eival. Condition of entry to Israel was acceptance of the Torah..
|Middle Bronze Age Interchange Period -
Canaanite and Phoenician culture
|2515||Death of Joshua - Beginning of Period of Judges- Tribes independent - but advised and ruled by Judges.||Philistines - Gaza||1245|
|Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Abimelech, Tola, Yair, Jeftah,
Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, Eli. Pilegesh Begiva - Civil war!
|2885||Samuel - Chose Jerusalem as capital. Anointed Saul as first king of Israel - Saul loses kingdom - Amalek.||Early Greek States founded||875|
|Natan the prophet anoints Solomon. (Samuel dies 28th Iyar - same day Temple Mount recaptured by Israel in 1967).||
|Kings - David, Solomon - philosopher kings. Davidic Lineage starts. Psalms.||Assyrian Empire|
|2892||David becomes King of Israel. Anointed in Hebron and rules from there for 7 years, then moves to Jerusalem. (In 2889 Avner appoints Ish Boshet as king of Israel, who rules for two years)||869|
|2924||Solomon becomes King of Israel. Author of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs. Peace and prosperity. Concubines- improper conversions, Messianic hope?||837|
|2928||First Temple started (pomegranate relic, mines, stables) 10 continuous miracles of First Temple, Urim Vetumim - Divine Presence||Rise of Assyrian Empire||832|
|2964||Division of Israel & Judea Rehovoam son of Solomon. Jeroboam. North-10 Tribes. South.- Judah, Benjamin, Priests & Levites. Elijah & prophets of Baal, Achaz & Jezebel||796|
|3150||Isaiah-prophecies of Messianic times||Homer||610|
|3199||Hezekiah - Chizkiyahu, becomes king of Judea. Potential Messiah - and considered one of the most righteous of kings.
Under Hezekiah the kingdom became imbued with Torah learning
|Shalmanazer - King of Assyria conquers Israel. Settles Samaritans in North.||562|
|3205||Assyrians Exile the 10 Tribes. The (good?!) Samaritans. Theories of lost tribes- probably assimilated. King of Assyria invades Judea, beseiges Jerusalem.||Senacherib - King of Assyria.
Beginning of Rome
|3298||Jeremiah begins his prophecies - predicts the destruction of the Temple.||Confucious|
|3320||Exile of Judah to Babylon in days of King Yehoyachin.||Rise of Babylon|
|3338||Babylonians destroy First Temple on the 9th of Av and exile the Jews to Babylon. Some flee to Europe. Walls breached on 7th of Tammuz, sacrifices stopped on 17th of Tammuz.
Leave behind a remnant, ruled by Jewish governor, Gedaliah.
On 3rd of Tishrei, Gedaliah is assassinated by Jews.
|Nebuchadnezar (According to Greek historians - Temple destroyed in 587)||423|
|3340||Jeremiah, Ezekiel Prophecies of destruction and exile, prophecies of return.||Socrates, Plato||422|
|3340||Babylonian Exile, Daniel. Aramaic becomes Jewish language. Academies of Torah study. Autonomy of internal affairs.||421|
|3386||Proclamation of Cyrus, Return to Israel. Minority returns in Nissan - same month as Exodus from Egypt.||Persian Empire||372|
|3390||Second Temple started||Medean Empire||368|
|3393||Cambys, Achashverosh stops construction. Feast celebrating "extinction" of Jews. Scroll of Esther. 164 "missing" years.||365|
|3400||Purim, Mordechai, Ezra the Scribe Renewal of settlement in Israel in the Golan heights, on the West and East banks of the Jordan river. Peaceful conquest||Aristotle||358|
|3408||Second Temple completed. End of Prophecy. Joy and tears - no Ark, no Urim Vetumim, none of the 10 miracles. 70 years after destruction||Alexander the Great||353|
|Men of the Great Assembly establish the Liturgy. Shimon Hatzadik, the High Priest, meets Alexander of Macedon - transition - Prophets to sages. Transition changes confrontation, free-will requires equal & opposite Jewish prophets vs. pagans with supernatural powers - challenge Sages of the Oral Law vs. Greek philosophy (intellect vs. intellect) .
Septuagint - Torah in Greek - Fast of 9th Tevet
|Ptomelaic Empire in Egypt. Seleucids in Syria.||313
|3648||Maccabean Revolt (Strong into hands of weak!) Decrees, Stadiums, Hellenism. Chanuka. Jew vs. Jew Ptolemies, Seleucids - Antiochus. Maccabees (Priests) become kings, form alliance with Rome against Greeks. Beginnings of sectarianism.||164 -> 168|
|Jonathan brother of Judah becomes king. In-fighting, intrigues and hatred among Hasomonean kings and family.||Rise of Roman Empire||152|
|3696||Herod & Pompeii make deal - Israel joins Roman Empire||Pompeii||62|
|3724||Herod - Paranoiac, persecutes sages. Renovates Temple to win popularity, Masada, Herodion (Ref. Josephus)||34 BCE|
|3700||Romans in the Land of Israel (invited)||10|
|3710||Philo of Alexandria||20|
|3770||Essenes - Dead Sea Scrolls||Early Christians||10 CE|
|3728||Hillel and Shammai|
|3788||Exile of Sanhedrin, Rabbi Yochanan ben Zachai|
|3827||Rabban Gamliel. Yeshu Hanotzri? Roman Occupation Rome initially makes legal exceptions for Judaism, wants Jews as Roman allies not Seleucid allies. Era of Pairs. Roman taxes, decrees. End of great Sanhedrin.||67|
|The Great Revolt||Titus||66 -> 73|
|3828||Romans destroy 2nd Temple - 9th of Av About 2,000,000 killed. Cruelty, Exile, Slavery. Ramban - Ki Tavo Rabbi Yochanan Ben Zakai - "Yavneh and its Sages" Prophecies in Deuteronomy 28:42 - Nachmanides commentary||Vespasian||68|
|3830||Rabbi Akiva, Rabbi Meir (stam Mishnah R. Meir) 24,000 students. 4 into Pardes, Acher.|
|3833||Masada, the Zealots - Talmudic silence Mikveh||.||73|
|Josephus Flavius - Wars of the Jews, Antiquities, Contra-Appion.||38 -> 100|
|3893||Bar Kochba Revolt, Betar - 9th of Av. Rabbis support Bar Kochbah as Messiah until killed by Romans. Bar Kochba letters. Ten martyrs||Hadrian||133|
|3950||Mishnah, Judah the Prince - Rabenu Hakadosh Scholar, Davidic lineage, righteous, Hebrew, wealth. Universal agreement||Antonius||170 -
|3953||Pescennius Niger - "You ask me to relieve your lands of their taxes; would that I could tax the very air you breathe."||193|
|4000||2000 years of Messiah||240|
|4000||Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai - The Zohar|
|4073||Constantine forbids Jews in Jerusalem. Beginnings of theological anti-Semitism.
Main focus of learning in the Jewish communities of Israel and Babylon becomes the Mishnah. Yarchei Kallah - communal study seminars convened regularly.
|Constantine - becomes Christian Rome/Byzantium split. Nicean Council decides on Christian dogma||313|
|4110||Jerusalem Talmud - R. Muna ben Yonah, R.Yosi ben Bun||350|
|4140||Hillel II - calendar. Theodosius forbids Sanhedrin to assemble, reaction to Julian's pro-Jewish stance. Calendar adopted at clandestine, & maybe last meeting.||Julian the Apostate||380|
|4260||Babylonian Talmud - Sof Horaah - End of Instruction||500|
|4360||Ravina and Rabbi Ashi. Rabanan Sevorai Last time that all Jewish scholars voted and discussed issues, thus equivalent authority of Sanhedrin. Geonic period begins||Beginnings of Islam - Mohammed||600|
|4384||Jews reject Islam, expulsions from Arabia. Rejection by Jews of Islam turns into hatred of Jews by Moslems||624-628|
|4397||Arabs invade Israel||637|
|4392||Emperor Heraclius decrees Jews of Byzantium to be forced into Christianity. 613-661 also in Spain, Gaul & Italy.||632|
|4471||90% of Jews under Moslems. (Yellow badge) Generally better off under Islam than under Christianity - closer philosophically (monotheism) & genetically. Dhimmis, tolerated minority under Islam vs. persecuted minority under Christians. Judaism is only problematic to Islam, but is an absolute contradiction to Christianity. "Fight those who do not practice the religion of truth from among those to whom the Book has been brought, until they pay the tribute by their hands, and they be reduced low." Koran - Sura 9:2. Khazars convert to Judaism.||Moslem Arabs invade Spain||711|
|4527||Anan Ben David - Karaites - threat of schism. Opposition to Oral Law - Fire on Shabbat, cholent, pikuach nefesh||767|
|4650||Rabbi Saadya Gaon (the Geonate) First systematic work of Jewish philosophy, partially to combat the Karaite challenge to tradition. Letter of Rav Sherira Gaon.||Emperor Charlemagne-800||890|
|4715||Four captives - decentralization of Torah. Growth of European and Nth. African Torah centers. Rabeinu Gershom - Light of the Exile - decrees against forced divorce, polygamy, reading others' mail. Decline of Babylonian Academies||955
|4773||RIF - Rabbi Isaac Alfasi of Morocco creates first condensation and codification of Jewish Law - R. Zerachiah Halevi writes critique of code.||1013|
|4800||Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki - RaSHI Commentaries on virtual all classic texts. Concise and deep. Systematic grammar, translations, elucidation of verses based on Midrash.
Troyes, Mayence, Worms.
|Rabbi Avraham Ibn Ezra - Fight against Karaites using logic & grammar||1092|
|4856||9th of Av - Start of First Crusade resulting in widespread slaughter of Jewish communities in the Rhineland.||Crusades||1096|
|Godfrey de Boullion - Leader of a Crusade - "Kill the heretics amongst us before going to Holy Land."
Jerusalem captured by the Crusaders
|4895||Maimonides - Rambam, R. Moses ben Maimon -student of the Spanish, Middle Eastern & Nth. African schools. Guide, Code, Book of the Commandments, 13 Principles of Faith, Commentary, Letters, Medical writings. Controversy, criticisms. Life in Egypt. Physician of Egyptian court.||Saladin - leads Moslems in fight against Crusaders.
(Patient of Rambam)
|4906||Expulsion from parts of Germany. Desecrating "host", blood libels. Rabenu Yaakov Tam - Baalei HaTosfot - French and German schools.|
|4909||Almohades bring Islamic intolerance to Spain fostering the spread of Spanish-Jewish culture outside the borders of Spain particularly in Provence, at the crossroads of Sefarad and Ashkenaz. The Orient and Europe||1149|
|4910||R. Yehudah Hachasid - Chasidei Ashkenaz. Era of the Pietists of Germany||Battle of Hastings
|1150 - 1217|
|4920||Benjamin of Tudela - Travels of Benjamin||1160|
|4946||Expulsion from France||1186|
|4949||Third Crusade - Widespread massacres of Jews in England||Richard Lion Heart||1189|
|4950||R. Yehudah Halevi - Kuzari, poems, Hebrew York massacre||1190|
|4954||Nachmanides (1194 - 1270) Ramban, Rabbi Moses ben Nachman. Defender of earlier sages (inc. Rambam) against attacks, Alfasi against R. Zerachiah Halevi. Commentaries- Tanach and Talmud, Kabbalah.||Saladin in Jerusalem||1194|
|4992||Burning of Maimonides' Guide in Provence (possibly causing - later book-burning by anti - Semitic authorities)||1232|
|5000||Aliyah of authors of Tosafot after disputation of R. Yechiel of Paris||1240|
|5002||Burning of Talmud in Paris - 24 cartloads. Fast day||1242|
||Disputation of Ramban with Pablo Christiani in - Barcelona, 20th July, 1263. Rabbi Meir of Rottenburg (imprisonment) - refuses ransom. Rabenu Yona of Gerona - Gates of Repentance. Rabbi Levi ben Gershon - Astronomer, inventor of Jacob's Staff Expulsion from England - 9th of Av. Bodlean Library - Oxford - stolen and abandoned Jewish books.||Edward I||1290|
|5064||Rashba - Cherem on study of philosophy for those under 25 years of age||1305|
|5065||Expulsion of Jews from most of France||1306|
|5116||Poisoning & conspiracy libels against Jews during Black Plague. Pogroms & expulsions. The Rashba of Barcelona, Spain. Rabenu Asher, the Rosh, fled from Germany to Toledo, Spain - nexus of Sephardi and Ashkenazi cultures enables son R. Yaakov combines scholarship of both in the Arbah Turim.||Black Plague||1357|
|5155||Expulsion from Provence - Meiri, Raavad, Radak, Ibn Tibbon||1395|
|Ibn Tibbons translators- Arabic to Hebrew Expulsion- Austria Continuous insecurity in Europe; discrimination, expulsions e.g. Speyer: Jews out 1405, in 1421, out 1430, in 1434, out 1435, in 1465||1395|
|5213||Ottoman Turks capture Israel from Moslems creating impetus to Jewish settlement in Israel- although numbers small.||Fall of Byzantium||1453|
|5235||First printing of Jewish books on printing press||1475|
|5252||Inquisition culminates with the expulsion from Spain on the 9th Av. Expulsions from Italy and Sicily Don Isaac Abarbanel - commentary on Tanach, advisor to Queen Isabella||Columbus - refuge||1492|
|5257||Portuguese expulsion, Auto-de-Fe, Marranos.||1497|
|5280||First printing of Talmud - Daniel Bomberg, Venice. Censorship. Pagination, commentary selection and layout of Bomberg still used today. "Rashi" script used for first time in printing.||Reformation. Luther - "The Jews & Their Lies." Rejection leading to hatred||1520|
|5300||Kabbalists of Safed. Ari'Zal (1534-72) Rabbi Chaim Vital
R. Shlomo Alkabetz - Lecha Dodi The Alsheich. Aliyah gradually increases.
|5325||Code of Jewish Law - Shulchan Aruch - Rabbi Yosef Karo (1488-1575) R. Moses Isserless (1525-1572) Israel - Sephardi Poland - Ashkenazi Universal acceptance, commentaries (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch - Condensed Code - Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried - late 19th Century)||Shakespeare - "Merchant of Venice" - No Jews in England since||1565|
|5408||Chmielnicki Pogroms - unspeakable cruelty Jews dejected, searching for hope, feeling of immanent Messianic revelation Total Jewish Pop.- 3.5 million Eastern Europe - 1.3 million.
100,000 murdered, 300 communities destroyed.
|Russian - Polish War
|5411||Shabtai Zvi - False Messiah - charisma, asceticism mysticism||1651|
|5416||Spanish-Portuguese Jews, Touro - Rhode Island. First Jews in America. Peter Stuyvesent reluctant to admit Jews to New Amsterdam. Baruch Spinoza - forerunner of modern Bible criticism & perhaps unintentionally of modern anti-Semitism, excommunicated in Amsterdam.||1656|
|5423||Shabtai Tzvi meets Nathan of Gaza "Prophet" - Israel Misuse of Kabbalah. (Similarly Jacob Frank a century later)||1663|
|5426||S.T. Abolishes 9th of Av, declares march on Jerusalem to capture from Sultan. Imprisoned by Sultan, converts to Islam.||Great Fire -London||1666|
|5427||R. David Halevi Segal - Taz, dies. 2 sons killed in pogroms, exiled to Moravia. One of the greatest commentaries on Code of Jewish Law together with R. Shabtai Cohen - Shach.|
|5460||Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov - Chassidism - Galicia, Ukraine, Podolia. The Tzadik, songs, joy, popularization of Kabbalistic teachings, sincerity, fervor, prayer and spontaneity..||Frederick I||1700|
|5461||Moses Chaim Luzzatto - (RaMCHaL). Systematizing of Kabbalah into logical steps, accessibility to laymen (criticism!). Ethical classics - Path of the Just, The Way of G-d, plays, poetry.||Leibnitz||1701|
|5473||R.Yehezkel Landau- Responsa Noda Biyehudah- Opposition to Chassidism Opposition to Kabbalistic prayers prior to performance of Mitzvot.||1713-1793|
|5480||The Gaon (Genius), R. Elijah of Vilna -GRA. Supremacy of Torah study through intellectual efforts of man. Opposition to Chassidism - Excesses due to emphasis on joy and spontaneity, charismatic leadership, popularization of Kabbalah (fear of Shabtai Zvi phenomenon), new customs, changes in liturgy. Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi - Tanya - Chabad -Lubavitch
R. Chaim of Volozhin - Nefesh Hachaim. Volozhin - "Mother of Yeshivot"
|5516||Conflict of R. Yaakov Emden and R. Yonason Eybeshutz over accusations of Shabeteanism||1756|
|5536||Beginnings of liberalization in Western Europe - Some Jews allowed to live outside Ghettos||American Revolution ends. Declaration of Independence||1776|
|5543||Moses Mendelssohn -"Religion due to Reason" German Biur of Torah. Children assimilate - grandchildren baptized. Pseudo-scientific, racial anti-Semitism. Fully blown in late 19th Century developing ultimately into Nazism in 20th century.||Immanuel Kant Voltaire - "Religion of Reason"||1783|
|5549||The Emancipation - Emperor Franz-Josef grants citizenship to the Jews, entrance to universities and professions permission to leave ghettoes and enter society.
Jacob Frank - false messiah in Poland died 1791
|5551||Equal rights for French Jews on condition. Napoleon - "For Jews as Jews nothing, for Jews as Frenchmen everything"
"Sanhedrin." Economic, social, intellectual and political pressure to assimilate. Four approaches - 1. Individual assimilation (Baptism, intermarriage) Heinrich Heine- "Baptism is the ticket of entry to European society" 2. Adaptation of Judaism to Zeitgeist (Reform, science of Judaism); S. Holdheim "we say merely this, anything which upon unbiased examination does not conform to the current religious spirit holds for us no authority." 3. Isolation from emancipation and modernity (Chassidim, Chatam Sofer); 4. Involvement in modern world without compromising of Halachic standards (Rabbi S. R. Hirsch).
|5575||Immigration to Israel, Chassidim & students of GRA - Safed, Tiberias, Hebron, Jerusalem. R. Israel of Shklov - Peat Hashulchan - Code of Jewish Law for Israel||Battle of Waterloo||1815|
Hamburg Temple - bells, organ, German prayers and sermon
|5600||R. Samson Raphael Hirsch - Torah & Derech Eretz. Horeb, 19 Letters. Separate communities. German Kehillah. Jewish Day School. Damascus Blood Libel||1840|
|5614||R. Israel Salanter - the Mussar movement. Lithuania - Combating cold intellectualism, emphasis on ethics, self-improvement, general reinforcement of inner aspects of Judaism, Mussar, R. Israel Salanter - R. Isaac Blazer, R. Naftali Amsterdam, Alter of Kelm. Different approaches to self-improvement- Greatness of Man or lowliness of Man, self-criticism. Opposition to Mussar by many Yeshivot. e.g. Volozhin - "bitter medicine" only for the sick. Study of Torah provides ethics.||Crimean War||1854|
|5641||Pogroms in the Ukraine. Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) Prime Minister Baptized by father. Alexander II killed - by Jewish anarchist May Laws- Backlash||Emigration - USA, England,
|5645||Reform movement has open field in the USA||Pittsburgh Platform||1885|
|5646||Treif Banquet - Reaction - Jewish Theological Seminary -
Solomon Morais - Beginnings of Conservative Movement
|Rise of nationalism in Europe and Balkans.||1886|
|5654||Dreyfus Trial, Theodore Herzl, Max Nordau The Jewish State, conversion. Panama, Vatican Bank. Pales of settlement.||Nicholas II- Russia||1894|
|5657||1st Zionist Congress, Basle. Agudas Israel founded as political representative of non- or anti-Zionist Orthodox Jews.||1897|
|5663||Vote on Israel vs. Uganda, Madagascar Sir Moses Montefiore, Rothchilds - Continue tradition of shtadlanim. Mass Immigrations- USA (2 million Jews by 1924) No official anti-Semitism; but no work for Shomrei Shabbos, ignorance, no Jewish education, alternatives to total abandonment exist, difficult to keep kosher - many abandon Orthodoxy for economic reasons. Many came with intent to abandon Judaism. Yiddish newspapers, left-wing e.g. Jewish Daily Forward, socialist and assimilationist. (Judaism unsuitable)
|5664||Conservative Movement - Solomon Schechter||1904|
|5665||Protocols - Nilus "Kill the Jews & save Russia" Pogroms||1905|
|5673||Beilis Trial - blood libel. Leo Frank lynched by mob in Georgia, USA, accused of murder.||Bernard Malamud- The Fixer||1913|
|5674||First World War - Britain declares war on the 9th Av. Jews on both sides. 500,000 Jewish soldiers fought in War.||1st World War||1914|
|5677||The Balfour Declaration and Chaim Weizman. The Chafetz Chaim and the ethics of speech. Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik of Brisk - Analysis vs. Pilpul. 3,250,000 Jews in the USA||Demonstration and riots against Czar Nicholas II||1917|
|5677||Britain Captures Palestine from Turks - General Allenby with assistance of Nili spy network. Jews organize units in British
army. Jabotinsky and Trumpeldor
Sarah Schnirer starts Jewish school for girls, Beit Yaacov movement begins to grow.
Lawrence of Arabia
|5679||60,000 Jews killed during Russian Revolution. Petlurya in Ukraine establishes independence pogroms begin, thousands of Jews brutally murdered.||Ukrainian independence||1919|
|5680||British Mandate, the Hagganah & the Irgun White Papers 1939, Aliyah Bet, restraint & revolt. Arabs attack Jewish settlements in Israel, Trumpeldor killed in Tel Chai..
M. Kaplan - Reconstructionism
|League of Nations||1920|
|5681||Arab riots in Jaffa, 47 Jews killed. 4 Jews killed defending Petach Tikvah||End of Russian civil war, Communists in power.||1921|
|5684||Rabbi Meir Shapiro of Lublin begins the Daf Yomi program||1923|
|5689||120,000 Jews in Israel. 4,000,000 Jews in USA
Arab riots against Jews in Israel, including pogrom in Hebron in which 67 Jews brutally murdered.
Franz Rosenzweig - Assimilated German-Jewish philosopher returns to Judaism after 15 year search.
|5696||18 Jews killed in Arab riots in Tel-Aviv-Jaffa, beginning of "Arab Revolt" that claimed the lives of 500 Jews over the next three years.||1936|
|5698||Kristallnacht pogrom in Germany, incited by Nazis, Jews attacked and killed,, businesses, homes and synagogues ransacked and burnt down. Tens of thousands sent to concentration camps.||United States introduces 5 day work week.||1938|
|5699||Britain introduces "White Papers" drastically reducing Jewish immigration to Israel. Interns Jewish refugees in Cyprus, and in camps in Israel. Sends many back to Europe.||Second World War begins with German invasion of Poland||1939|
|5699||The Holocaust - enthusiastic help of local population. Indifference of world - (While Six Million Died, Morse) Jewish spiritual heroism. (With G-d in Hell, Berkovitz)
Warsaw Ghetto Revolt
|5708||The State of Israel, War of Independence UN vote, partition, Jewish refugees - 600,000! Arabs - 400,000. Renewal of Yeshivot Assimilation and secularization of Sephardi Jewry.||Berlin Blockade||1948|
|5716||Sinai Campaign, War of Attrition||Russia in Hungary||1956|
|Fedayeen, hijackings, snipers, Katushyas, bombs||PLO Covenant||1964|
|5727||Six-Day War, Liberation of Jerusalem on 28th of Iyar. The Western Wall, Hebron in Jewish hands!. Russia breaks ties with Israel. Vatican calls for internationalization of Jerusalem||Vietnam War||1967|
|5727||The Baal-Teshuva Movement - Return to Judaism
Refuseniks. Founding of Yeshivot for beginners
|Identity. Ethnic and national awareness. Pride. Ohr Somayach||1971|
|5733||The Yom-Kippur War. Two day's ammunition left before US airlift. 2,500 Israeli soldiers killed. More Israeli baalei teshuvah than '67. Profound demoralization, increased emigration from Israel, lack of idealism amongst secular Zionists grows.||Watergate
Arab Oil Embargo
|5737||Peace treaty with Egypt, Begin and Sadat Ethiopian Jews. Loss of Sinai peninsula. "Cold peace."||Arabs alienate Egypt||1977|
|5741||Israel bombs Iraqi nuclear reactor-worldwide condemnation UN resolution condemning attack sponsored by Kuwait!||1981|
|5742||The Lebanon War. Katushyas, hostages, terrorism . PLO's state within a state. Siege of Beirut. Diaspora Jews criticize Israel..||1982|
|5749||Start of Intifada - massive unrest and violent protest by Palestinians - Ultimately leading to Oslo Accords||1987|
|5750||Mass Immigration of Russian Jews to Israel||Glasnost-Perestroika||1990|
|5750||Iraqi missiles land in Israel- Population of Israel receives gas masks, seals rooms etc. Israel lauded for "restraint" 9th of Av- Iraq walks out of talks with Kuwait. Iraq invades Kuwait - US troops in Saudi Arabia - UN ultimatum January 15th - USA attacks Iraq 16th - Massive and continuous air bombardments. February 23 - Coalition forces enter Kuwait and Iraq - ground-war. Purim victory||1990|
|5751||Russian immigration continues. Albanian Jews make Aliyah. Rescue of Ethiopian Jewry..||Abandonment of Kurds. Syria in|
|5753||Signing of the Oslo Accords - Rabin and Arafat||1993|
|5756||Assassination of Prime Minister Rabin - wave of anti-religious sentiment sweeps country. Elections follow in which right-wing government of Likud under Netanyahu is elected||1995|
|6000||Beginning of 1000 years - Sabbath of the world.||2239|
Written by Mordechai Becher
General Editor: Rabbi Moshe Newman
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