To Drink or Not to Drink?
Can you feel Purim just around the corner? Who isn’t eagerly anticipating this annual Yom Tov extravaganza, featuring joyous dancing, Mishloach Manos, colorful costumes, and of course, the Megillah reading? However, for many, it is the unique mitzvah to get drunk that they are eagerly awaiting. Since Purim is described in the Megillah as a day of Mishteh (referring to a wine feast) and the Purim turnabout miracle occurred at such wine feasts, there is a rare dispensation from the norm, and an apparent obligation to drink wine. Hopefully, the wine will enable one to experience a sublime, spiritual Purim. Yet, uninhibited drinking may also unfortunately result in catastrophic consequences. If so, what exactly is the Mitzvah of drinking on Purim?
Chayav Inish L’Vesumei…
The Gemara in Megillah (7b) famously rules that ‘MeiChayav Inish L’Vesumei B’Puraya ad d’lo yada bein Arur Haman L’Boruch Mordechai’ - a person is obligated to drink and get intoxicated on Purim until he cannot tell the difference between ‘Cursed is Haman’ and ‘Blessed is Mordechai’. The simple meaning is seemingly teaching us that we must get exceedingly drunk on Purim. Yet, as we will soon see, this assertion is anything but simple.
The very next line in the Gemara tells a fascinating story of Rabba and Rabbi Zeira who got excessively drunk together on Purim. In his drunken stupor, Rabba proceeded to kill (‘slaughter’) Rabbi Zeira. When he sobered up and realized what he had done, he davened that Rabbi Zeira be brought back to life. His tefillos were answered and Rabbi Zeira rejoined the world of the living. Yet, the next year, Rabbi Zeira refused to join Rabba for his Purim seudah, duly noting that a miracle is not a common occurrence and one may not rely on such miracles.
Although there are different interpretations of this story, with several meforshim explaining that it is not to be understood literally, positing that Rabba did not actually kill Rabbi Zeira, nevertheless, many commentaries are bothered by the Gemara’s choice of words. If the ruling is that one must get drunk on Purim, then why is this story, showcasing the potential drastic and tragic consequences of such drinking, featured immediately following? What message is the Gemara trying to impart to us? Additionally, what exactly does it mean that one must drink until ad d’lo yada bein Arur Haman L’Boruch Mordechai? What does this enigmatic turn of phrase actually mean?
Ad D’ad D’lo Yada…
As with many other issues in halacha, the answers to these questions are not as simple as they seem. Several authorities, including the Rif and Tur, when codifying this mitzvah, do indeed use the basic understanding of the Gemara’s ruling, that one is required to get so drunk on Purim that he cannot tell the difference between ‘Cursed is Haman’ and ‘Blessed is Mordechai’, implying quite drunk.
Yet, Rabbeinu Efraim, cited l’halacha by the Ran and Baal HaMa’or , rules the exact opposite! He maintains that since the Gemara tells the story of Rabba and Rabbi Zeira after the ruling of getting drunk, it is not meant only as a cautionary tale detailing the evils of excessive alcohol imbibement; rather, it is coming to negate the ruling! According to this understanding, it is forbidden to get drunk on Purim!
V’lo Ad B’Chlal!
A different explanation of the Gemara is that drinking ad d’lo yada bein Arur Haman L’Boruch Mordechai does not actually mean getting stone cold drunk. In fact, most commentaries offer many different rationales as to the Gemara’s intent with this phrase. Some say it means drinking until one can no longer perform the mental acrobatics necessary to be able to add up the Gematria of Arur Haman andBaruch Mordechai (Hint: they both equal 502!). Accordingly, this is a much lesser degree of drunkenness. Others explain it means drinking until one can no longer decide which was a greater miracle: the downfall of Haman or Mordechai’s meteoric rise in prominence. Another interpretation is to drink enough to no longer be able to recite a lengthy Purim-themed Alef-Bais acrostic poem in the proper order. An additional understanding is that one must get inebriated just enough to no longer be able to properly thank Hashem for the many miracles of our salvation Purim time. It is clear that many authorities throughout the generations felt uncomfortable with the literal interpretation of the Gemara’s teaching to get drunk on Purim, and each one interprets the instruction as such that it does not imply one’s fully getting drunk.
Rav Manoach Hendel of Prague, a contemporary of the Maharshal’s, cites many of these explanations to elucidate the Gemara’s intent. Interestingly, what they all have in common is that not a single one of them understands the Gemara to mean actually getting drunk! Utilizing any of these aforementioned opinions would mean that one should definitely not be ‘getting plastered’. Rather, one should only drink a bit, somewhat more than he usually would, until he fulfills one of these understandings of the dictum of ad d’lo yada.
In fact, although the Shulchan Aruch seems to imply that he agrees with the Tur’s interpretation, that one must get drunk, it must be noted that in his Beis Yosef commentary he completely rejects this approach, exclusively citing Rabbeinu Efraim and the Orchos Chaim , who refers to getting drunk on Purim as ‘ain lecha Aveirah gedolah mezu’, the worst of Aveiros, and concludes that one should merely drink a tad more than he is accustomed to. This apparently means that when he codified the halacha in the Shulchan Aruch as drinking until ad d’lo yada, this should be understood in the light of his writing in the Beis Yosef, and not ‘getting wasted’, as many mistakenly believe.
Sleep It Off
The Rambam offers an alternate approach. He maintains that one must drink until he falls asleep. Meaning, if one drinks and then falls asleep he has fulfilled his Mitzvah of drinking on Purim ad d’lo yada without actually getting drunk. When asleep, one certainly cannot distinguish between Arur Haman and Baruch Mordechai! This also fits well with his ruling in Hilchos Dei’os about one who gets drunk being a ‘sinner and a disgrace’.
The Rema when codifying the proper amount to drink on Purim combines both of the latter approaches: drinking somewhat more than one is accustomed to regularly, and then going to sleep.
So…What’s the Halacha?
It should be noted that several authorities who do rule that one should actually get drunk, including the Ya’avetz, Sha’arei Teshuva, Chayei Adam, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, and Kaf Hachaim, add an important caveat. If one might come to be lax in the performance of even one other mitzvah, such as Netillas Yadayim, Bentching or Davening while drunk, they all maintain that it is preferable not to drink at all, to ensure that all of one’s actions remainl’sheim shamayim.
The Pri Chadash cites several opinions regarding drinking on Purim and concludes that already in his time, several hundred years ago, with society’s decline over the generations, it is proper to follow the opinion of Rabbeinu Efraim, and only drink a small amount more than usual. This way one will be certain not to chas veshalom unwittingly transgress any prohibitions, and result in receiving blessings from Hashem. Not a daas yachid, the Pri Megadim, Aruch Hashulchan, and Mishna Berura all rule like the Pri Chadash l’maaseh.
If this was the case several centuries ago, how much more relevant is the Pri Chadash’s prophetic words nowadays, with teen alcoholism on the rise and not a year going by without hearing horror stories about the tragic results of excessive drinking on Purim? Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt”l decried the letzonus and zilzul that unfortunately has replaced Simcha shel Mitzva and become the norm among many, due to intoxication. And, more recently, Rav Shmuel Kamenetzky has publicly stated that “it is an Aveira to get drunk on Purim”.
The author wishes to acknowledge excellent articles on this topic by Rabbi Moshe Brody, Rabbi Yehoshua Pfeffer, and Rabbi Binyomin Radner.
Esther (Ch. 9, verse 19).
See AbuDraham (Hilchos Purim), Shu”t Radbaz (vol. 1, 462), Elya Rabba (O.C. 695, 1), Chayei Adam (vol. 2, 155, 30), Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (142, 6), and Biur Halacha (695 s.v. chayav). However, there are those who maintain that one need not get drunk exclusively with wine. See also Orchos Rabbeinu (vol. 3, Purim, 92).
As Rav Shlomo Wolbe (Alei Shor vol. 2, pg. 468) wrote about Rav Yisrael Salanter on Purim.
For different interpretations of what Rabba actually did to Rabbi Zeira if not kill him, see Meiri (Megillah 7b), Maharsha (Chiddushei Aggados to Megillah 7b), Yaavetz (in his glosses to Megillah 7b), and Halichos Shlomo (Moadim vol. 1, Ch.19, end footnote 77).
Rif(Megillah 3b) and Tur (Orach Chaim 695, 2). Although the Rosh (ad loc. 8) also uses this choice of words in his ruling, he adds the piyut cited in Tosafos (ad loc. s.v. d’lo), implying a lower level of drunkenness is required. See footnote 9. Other Rishonim who also maintain that the halacha is to get completely drunk include the Ravyah (end 564; cited by the Haghos Maimoniyos - Hilchos Megillah Ch. 2, 15, 2 and Maharil - Shu”t 56) and the Sefer HaMinhagim of Rav Yitzchak Isaac Tyrnau [Tirna] (Hilchos Purim; cited in Darchei Moshe O.C. 695, 1). However, it is important to note that they hold that doing so is a Mitzvah and not an outright obligation.
Rabbeinu Efraim’s shittah is cited l’halacha by the Ran (Megillah 3b in the Rif’s folios s.v. meichayav) Baal HaMa’or (ad loc.), and Shitas Rivav (R’ Yehuda ben Brechya - ad loc.). It is also cited by many later authorities including the Beis Yosef (O.C. 695, 2 s.v. mitzvah), Bach (ad loc. s.v. u’lfa”d), Taz (ad loc. 2), and Pri Chadash (ad loc. 2). See also Korban Nesanel (Megillah Ch. 1, 10) who writes similarly.
This approach is cited by the Agudah (Purim 6), Rabbeinu Yerucham (Toldos Adam, Nesiv 10, vol. 1 pg. 62c), Chochmas Manoach (Megillah 7b), Darchei Moshe (O.C. 695, 1), Ba’er Hagolah (ad loc.), Magen Avraham (ad loc. 3), Pri Megadim (ad loc. E.A. 3), Aruch Hashulchan (ad loc. 3), and Shaar HaTziyun (ad loc. 5).
See Biur HaGr”a (ad loc. s.v. chayav), Yad Efraim (ad loc. s.v. chayav), Aruch Hashulchan (ad loc. 4), and Mishna Berura (ad loc. 4).
The idea that Gemara’s intent was not simply to know the difference between Arur Haman L’Boruch Mordechai but rather reciting a lengthier acrostic, implying that a much lesser degree of inebriation is mandated, is brought by Tosafos (Megillah 7b s.v. d’lo) and the Rosh (ad loc. 8), citing the Yerushalmi (Megillah, Ch. Bnei Ha’Ir, Halacha 5). A similar assessment is cited by many authorities, including the AbuDraham (Hilchos Purim), Sefer Ha’Eshkol (Hilchos Megillah 8), Sefer HaMinhagim (Purim), Chochmas Manoach (in his commentary to Megillah 7b), Darchei Moshe (O.C. 695, 1), Rashash (in his commentary to Megillah 7b), Maharsham (ad loc.), and Aruch Hashulchan (O.C. 695, 3), who explain that there used to be a common lengthy Purim-themed Alef-Bais acrostic poem recited on Purim. Accordingly, this understanding of Arur Haman L’Boruch Mordechai is to drink enough to no longer be able to recite this piyut in the proper order; a feat that would not entail much drinking at all.
See Taz (O.C. 695, 1) and Mishna Berura (ad loc. 4). Several later authorities seem to combine this understanding with that of the Gra’s.
In his Chochmas Manoach commentary to Gemara Megillah (7b).
Many authorities cite this as correct, some stating ‘ad v’lo ad b’chlal’, meaning yes, one should drink more than usual, but one should definitely not actually get drunk. See Meiri (Megillah 7b s.v. chayav), Kol Bo (45), Nemukei Yosef (Megillah 7b), Korban Nesanel (ad loc. 10), Rema (O.C. 695, 2), Yad Efraim (to O.C. 695, 2), Sfas Emes (Megillah 7b), Biur Halacha (695 s.v. ad), Shaarim Metzuyanim B’Halacha (vol. 3, 142, 11), and Shu”t Shevet HaLevi (vol. 10, 107, 2). However, and interestingly, the Bach (695 s.v. u’lfa”d) concludes that one should still drink ‘harbeh’ but not get actually drunk.
Shulchan Aruch (O.C. 695, 2), Beis Yosef commentary (ad loc. s.v. mitzvah), Rabbeinu Efraim (ibid.), and Orchos Chaim (Hilchos Purim 38). Interestingly, the Maharsha, in his Chiddushei Halachos (Megillah 7b) implies this way as well. On the words to explain the chiyuv of ad d’lo yada, he simply writes, ‘v’ayin B’Beis Yosef, vkal lahaveen’, implying that this is the proper explanation. See also his comments to Bava Metzia 23b, where he alludes to this as well, that one should not actually get drunk on Purim. However, from the Rema’s choice of words (v’yesh omrim) it seems that he understood that the Shulchan Aruch was actually contradicting his own psak in the Beis Yosef, and he therefore felt the need to actually spell out the correct psak - the conclusion in the Beis Yosef, synthesized with the Rambam’s shitta - see footnote 15. The Aruch Hashulchan (ad loc. 6) as well asks this as a stira on the Shulchan Aruch and even concludes tzarich iyun. Yet, afterwards, in parenthesis, he writes ‘v’ulai yifrshu ad v’lo ad b’chlal’, meaning there truly is no contradiction, but the Shulchan Aruch’s intent all along was to drink more than usual, but not to get drunk.
Rambam (Hilchos Megillah Ch.2, 15 and Hilchos Dei’os Ch.5, 3). See Aruch Hashulchan (O.C. 695, 2) for hesber.
Rema (O.C. 695, 2). See Aruch Hashulchan (ad loc. 2) for hesber. The Rema’s approach seems to be a synthesis of the Kol Bo’s shitta (45) and the Rambam’s. For how to optimally fulfill the Mitzvah this way see Mikraei Kodesh (Purim 44), Orchos Rabbeinu (vol. 3, pg. 57), Shu”t Moadim U’Zmanim (vol. 2, 190), Chazon Ovadia (Purim. ppg. 175 - 178), and Rav Chaim Kanievsky’s Igeres HaPurim (Ch. 6, 10). On this Rema, the Vilna Gaon (Biur HaGr”a ad loc. s.v. v’yesh omrim) references several Gemaras (Pesachim 113b and Yoma 74b - 75a) that refer to the evils of getting drunk, strongly implying that this is the proper ruling. The Aruch Hashulchan (ad loc. end 6) as well, after much shakla v’tarya concludes that this is the correct course of action to take on Purim.
Ya’avetz (in his Amudei Shamayim Siddur; cited by the Sha’arei Teshuva 695, 2), Chayei Adam (vol. 2, 155, 30), Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (142, 6), and Kaf Hachaim (O.C. 695, 15 and 16). See also Biur Halacha (695 s.v. ad). The Kaf Kachaim adds that still one should at least drink a small amount of wine to fulfill the words of the Megillah (Esther Ch. 9, verse 19) ‘Yemei Mishteh V’Simcha’.
Pri Chadash (O.C. 695, 2), Pri Megadim (ad loc. M.Z. 2), and Mishna Berura (ad loc. 5). The Aruch Hashulchan deals with this topic extensively (ad loc. 1 - 6), citing several opinions, questions and possible answers. Yet he concludes ‘u’lmaaseh yeish l’hisrachek min hashichrus…v’rak l’shtos miat yoser m’linudo v’lishan ketzas’, that bottom line one should distance himself from intoxication, and should rather drink a bit more than he is accustomed to and then go to sleep.
Halichos Shlomo (Moadim vol. 1, Ch.19, end footnote 77).
Especially as the Mordechai (Megillah Ch. 1, 789; cited in Darchei Moshe ibid.) writes ‘v’adif yomei d’Puraya m’Yom Shenitnah bo Torah’. Just something worthwhile to think about.