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For the week ending 27 December 2003 / 2 Tevet 5764

Wisdom Oil

by Rabbi Yirmiyahu Ullman - www.rabbiullman.com
Should we reject secular knowledge?
The Color of HeavenArtscroll

From: Martin in St. Louis

Dear Rabbi,

A central theme of Chanukah seems to be the victory of Torah over the philosophy of the Greeks. Does that mean that Judaism rejects the wisdom of the nations? Is there no redeeming value to that wisdom according to the Torah? Thank you.

Dear Martin,

True, Chanukah commemorates the victory of Torah over those who wanted to uproot it. However, the battle was not against the wisdom of ancient Greece per se, but against the philosophy that the wisdom of the nations is superior to that of the Torah, that the pursuit of wisdom is an end in and of itself, and the intellectual arrogance this philosophy breeds.

According to the Torah, G-d is the source of all wisdom, and it is G-d who imparts wisdom to mankind: "In the hearts of all the wise-hearted I have put wisdom" (Ex. 31:6). Furthermore, wisdom is not an end of its own, rather a means to achieve spiritual heights. Therefore our Sages remarked, "The goal of wisdom is repentance and good deeds". And elsewhere they warned, "One whose fear of sin takes priority over his wisdom, his wisdom will endure; but one whose wisdom takes priority over his fear of sin, his wisdom will not endure".

While the highest form of wisdom according to Judaism is that of the Torah, one can only achieve it through humility. In the verse, "Where shall wisdom be found" (Job 28:12), the Hebrew word for "where" is "mayin" which also means "from nothingness". From this the Talmud comments that Torah wisdom can only be found in one who "makes nothing" of himself, i.e. is humble. This idea is echoed in the words of the prophet, "Let not the wise man glory in his wisdombut let him that glories glory in this, that he understands and knows Me" (Jeremiah 9:22).

However, the Torah also recognizes the importance of the wisdom of the nations. Just as one recites a special blessing upon seeing an outstanding Torah scholar, one recites, "Blessed are youWho has given of His knowledge to human beings" upon seeing an outstanding secular scholar. However, just as wisdom in Torah is only valued when it is accompanied with righteousness and humility in the service of G-d, so too secular wisdom is only valued when it is subservient to spirituality for the betterment of mankind and as a means for appreciating the wonders of G-ds Creation.

Perhaps this is one of the many ideas alluded to in the seven-branched Menorah, which symbolically radiates the light of wisdom into the world.

The purpose of each branch of the Menorah in its service in the Temple of G-d is to support the vessels of pure olive oil placed upon them. Our sources identify among the nations seven branches of wisdom. These branches correspond to the seven branches of the Menorah, while the pure, illuminating olive oil upon them symbolizes Torah wisdom. This reveals that the wisdoms of the nations only fulfill their role in the world when they serve and are subservient to the wisdom of Torah placed above them.

Sources:

  • Berachot 17a
  • Avot 3:11
  • Midrash Tanchuma, Parshat Vayelech ch. 2
  • Sota 21b
  • Pri Tzadik, by Rabbi Tzadok HaCohen, Parshat Acharei Mot, section 5
  • The seven wisdoms are: grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, music, geometry and astronomy. See Tzaddik, p. 80 note 7.

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